Archive for the ‘Business’ Category

Cars Wanted Urgently

In AMA Sales & Marketing, Business, Media Dailies, To Deal or Not on January 24, 2011 at 7:35 pm

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Transactional analysis

In Business on November 26, 2010 at 10:23 pm

Eric Berne‘s Transactional Analysis – early TA history and theory

Transactional Analysis is one of the most accessible theories of modern psychology. Transactional Analysis was founded by Eric Berne, and the famous ‘parent adult child’ theory is still being developed today. Transactional Analysis has wide applications in clinical, therapeutic, organizational and personal development, encompassing communications, management, personality, relationships and behaviour. Whether you’re in business, a parent, a social worker or interested in personal development, Eric Berne’s Transactional Analysis theories, and those of his followers, will enrich your dealings with people, and your understanding of yourself. This section covers the background to Transactional Analysis, and Transactional Analysis underpinning theory.

Throughout history, and from all standpoints: philosophy, medical science, religion; people have believed that each man and woman has a multiple nature.

In the early 20th century, Sigmund Freud first established that the human psyche is multi-faceted, and that each of us has warring factions in our subconscious. Since then, new theories continue to be put forward, all concentrating on the essential conviction that each one of us has parts of our personality which surface and affect our behaviour according to different circumstances.

In 1951 Dr Wilder Penfield began a series of scientific experiments. Penfield proved, using conscious human subjects, by touching a part of the brain (the temporal cortex) with a weak electrical probe, that the brain could be caused to ‘play back’ certain past experiences, and the feelings associated with them. The patients ‘replayed’ these events and their feelings despite not normally being able to recall them using their conventional memories.

Penfield’s experiments went on over several years, and resulted in wide acceptance of the following conclusions:

  • The human brain acts like a tape recorder, and whilst we may ‘forget’ experiences, the brain still has them recorded.
  • Along with events the brain also records the associated feelings, and both feelings and events stay locked together.
  • It is possible for a person to exist in two states simultaneously (because patients replaying hidden events and feelings could talk about them objectively at the same time).
  • Hidden experiences when replayed are vivid, and affect how we feel at the time of replaying.
  • There is a certain connection between mind and body, i.e. the link between the biological and the psychological, eg a psychological fear of spiders and a biological feeling of nausea.

early transactional analysis theory and model

In the 1950’s Eric Berne began to develop his theories of Transactional Analysis. He said that verbal communication, particularly face to face, is at the centre of human social relationships and psychoanalysis.

His starting-point was that when two people encounter each other, one of them will speak to the other. This he called the Transaction Stimulus. The reaction from the other person he called the Transaction Response.

The person sending the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent.

Transactional Analysis became the method of examining the transaction wherein: ‘I do something to you, and you do something back’.

Berne also said that each person is made up of three alter ego states:




These terms have different definitions than in normal language.


This is our ingrained voice of authority, absorbed conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young. We were conditioned by our real parents, teachers, older people, next door neighbours, aunts and uncles, Father Christmas and Jack Frost. Our Parent is made up of a huge number of hidden and overt recorded playbacks. Typically embodied by phrases and attitudes starting with ‘how to’, ‘under no circumstances’, ‘always’ and ‘never forget’, ‘don’t lie, cheat, steal’, etc, etc. Our parent is formed by external events and influences upon us as we grow through early childhood. We can change it, but this is easier said than done.


Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the ‘Child’. This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or despair dominates reason, the Child is in control. Like our Parent we can change it, but it is no easier.


Our ‘Adult’ is our ability to think and determine action for ourselves, based on received data. The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. If we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our adult.

In other words:

  • Parent is our ‘Taught’ concept of life
  • Adult is our ‘Thought’ concept of life
  • Child is our ‘Felt’ concept of life

When we communicate we are doing so from one of our own alter ego states, our Parent, Adult or Child. Our feelings at the time determine which one we use, and at any time something can trigger a shift from one state to another. When we respond, we are also doing this from one of the three states, and it is in the analysis of these stimuli and responses that the essence of Transactional Analysis lies. See the poem by Philip Larkin about how parental conditioning affects children and their behaviour into adulthood. And for an uplifting antidote see the lovely Thich Nhat Hanh quote. These are all excellent illustrations of the effect and implications of parental conditioning in the context of Transactional Analysis.

At the core of Berne’s theory is the rule that effective transactions (ie successful communications) must be complementary. They must go back from the receiving ego state to the sending ego state. For example, if the stimulus is Parent to Child, the response must be Child to Parent, or the transaction is ‘crossed’, and there will be a problem between sender and receiver.

If a crossed transaction occurs, there is an ineffective communication. Worse still either or both parties will be upset. In order for the relationship to continue smoothly the agent or the respondent must rescue the situation with a complementary transaction.

In serious break-downs, there is no chance of immediately resuming a discussion about the original subject matter. Attention is focused on the relationship. The discussion can only continue constructively when and if the relationship is mended.

Here are some simple clues as to the ego state sending the signal. You will be able to see these clearly in others, and in yourself:


Physical – angry or impatient body-language and expressions, finger-pointing, patronising gestures,

Verbal – always, never, for once and for all, judgmental words, critical words, patronising language, posturing language.

N.B. beware of cultural differences in body-language or emphases that appear ‘Parental‘.


Physical – emotionally sad expressions, despair, temper tantrums, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, teasing, delight, laughter, speaking behind hand, raising hand to speak, squirming and giggling.

Verbal – baby talk, I wish, I dunno, I want, I’m gonna, I don’t care, oh no, not again, things never go right for me, worst day of my life, bigger, biggest, best, many superlatives, words to impress.


Physical – attentive, interested, straight-forward, tilted head, non-threatening and non-threatened.

Verbal – why, what, how, who, where and when, how much, in what way, comparative expressions, reasoned statements, true, false, probably, possibly, I think, I realise, I see, I believe, in my opinion.


And remember, when you are trying to identify ego states: words are only part of the story.

To analyse a transaction you need to see and feel what is being said as well.

  • Only 7% of meaning is in the words spoken.
  • 38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said).
  • 55% is in facial expression. (source: Albert Mehrabian – more info)

There is no general rule as to the effectiveness of any ego state in any given situation (some people get results by being dictatorial (Parent to Child), or by having temper tantrums, (Child to Parent), but for a balanced approach to life, Adult to Adult is generally recommended.

Transactional Analysis is effectively a language within a language; a language of true meaning, feeling and motive. It can help you in every situation, firstly through being able to understand more clearly what is going on, and secondly, by virtue of this knowledge, we give ourselves choices of what ego states to adopt, which signals to send, and where to send them. This enables us to make the most of all our communications and therefore create, develop and maintain better relationships.



modern transactional analysis theory

Transactional Analysis is a theory which operates as each of the following:

  • a theory of personality
  • a model of communication
  • a study of repetitive patterns of behaviour

Transactional Analysis developed significantly beyond these Berne’s early theories, by Berne himself until his death in 1970, and since then by his followers and many current writers and experts. Transactional Analysis has been explored and enhanced in many different ways by these people, including: Ian Stewart and Vann Joines (their book ‘TA Today’ is widely regarded as a definitive modern interpretation); John Dusay, Aaron and Jacqui Schiff, Robert and Mary Goulding, Pat Crossman, Taibi Kahler, Abe Wagner, Ken Mellor and Eric Sigmund, Richard Erskine and Marityn Zalcman, Muriel James, Pam Levin, Anita Mountain and Julie Hay (specialists in organizational applications), Susannah Temple, Claude Steiner, Franklin Ernst, S Woollams and M Brown, Fanita English, P Clarkson, M M Holloway, Stephen Karpman and others.

Significantly, the original three Parent Adult Child components were sub-divided to form a new seven element model, principally during the 1980’s by Wagner, Joines and Mountain. This established Controlling and Nurturing aspects of the Parent mode, each with positive and negative aspects, and the Adapted and Free aspects of the Child mode, again each with positive an negative aspects, which essentially gives us the model to which most TA practitioners refer today:


Parent is now commonly represented as a circle with four quadrants:

Nurturing – Nurturing (positive) and Spoiling (negative).

Controlling – Structuring (positive) and Critical (negative).


Adult remains as a single entity, representing an ‘accounting’ function or mode, which can draw on the resources of both Parent and Child.


Child is now commonly represented as circle with four quadrants:

Adapted – Co-operative (positive) and Compliant/Resistant (negative).

Free – Spontaneous (positive) and Immature (negative).

Where previously Transactional Analysis suggested that effective communications were complementary (response echoing the path of the stimulus), and better still complementary adult to adult, the modern interpretation suggests that effective communications and relationships are based on complementary transactions to and from positive quadrants, and also, still, adult to adult. Stimulii and responses can come from any (or some) of these seven ego states, to any or some of the respondent’s seven ego states.

You Can Be Wrong & Right

In Business on November 26, 2010 at 10:04 pm



The Power of Positive Thinking and how to get Affirmations To Work For You

Positive thinking is a practice and it requires that you have a certain mental attitude. When you have a positive thinking mindset you automatically have positive thoughts and you continually recite positive affirmations. This process happens automatically.

When you have a positive thinking mindset you almost instantly find answers to even the most complex problems and challenges. Positive thinking is a mindset or attitude that is geared towards automatically expecting things to work out. A person with a Positive Thinking pattern in place expects, believes and trusts that things will always work out and they often do.

This is not to be confused with someone who simply says: “Think positive and everything will workout.” Such a person is does not have the proper positive thinking mindset in place. They are simply turning to positive thinking when things go wrong – and by then it’s too late, the damage has been done.

Someone who has a positive thinking mindset naturally thinks positive and always foresees happiness, good health, success, and a positive outcome to just about every situation and event that takes place. They also trust and know that they will make the right decision and the right choices. Since they expect it – their mind and subconscious mind find a way to make it happen. This is the power of having a positive thinking mindset.

Now I know that not everybody thinks that positive thinking works, and often these are the people who use the concept of positive thinking sporadically or when they need to get out of a jam. That’s not the way positive thinking worse as I just outlined, so if you try this approach don’t expect results.

There are also those who believe in positive thinking but don’t know how to properly apply it. These are the people who will say “Think Positive” when you’re down or when things aren’t going well. But the person hearing this phrase has no idea what they mean and so tries to apply it and doesn’t get the result they want.

The Power to Change

In Business on November 26, 2010 at 7:21 pm

A goal properly set is halfway reached.

– Zig Ziglar





In Business on November 8, 2010 at 8:02 pm
Epicurus from Gargittos

Image via Wikipedia


Full name Epicurus
Born 341 BCE
Died circa 270 BCE (aged 72)
Era Ancient philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Epicureanism
Main interests Atomism

Democritus, Pyrrho

Hermarchus, Lucretius, Thomas Hobbes, Immanuel Kant, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Jefferson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Michel Onfray, Hadrian, Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger), David Hume, Philodemus, Amafinius, Catius, Michel Foucault, Pierre Gassendi, Han Ryner

Epicurus (Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epikouros, “ally, comrade”; Samos, 341 BCE – Athens, 270 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher and the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters remain of Epicurus’s 300 written works. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators.

For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia, peace and freedom from fear, and aponia, the absence of pain, and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are the measures of what is good and evil, that death is the end of the body and the soul and should therefore not be feared, that the gods do not reward or punish humans, that the universe is infinite and eternal, and that events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space.


His parents, Neocles and Chaerestrate, both Athenian-born, and his father a citizen, had emigrated to the Athenian settlement on the Aegean island of Samos about ten years before Epicurus’s birth in February 341 BCE.[1] As a boy he studied philosophy for four years under the Platonist teacher Pamphilus. At the age of 18 he went to Athens for his two-year term of military service. The playwright Menander served in the same age-class of the ephebes as Epicurus.

After the death of Alexander the Great, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian settlers on Samos to Colophon. After the completion of his military service, Epicurus joined his family there. He studied under Nausiphanes, who followed the teachings of Democritus. In 311/310 BCE Epicurus taught in Mytilene but caused strife and was forced to leave. He then founded a school in Lampsacus before returning to Athens in 306 BCE. There he founded The Garden, a school named for the garden he owned about halfway between the Stoa and the Academy that served as the school’s meeting place.

Even though many of his teachings were heavily influenced by earlier thinkers, especially by Democritus, he differed in a significant way with Democritus on determinism. Epicurus would often deny this influence, denounce other philosophers as confused, and claim to be “self-taught”.

Epicurus never married and had no known children. He suffered from kidney stones,[2] to which he finally succumbed in 270 BCE[3] at the age of 72, and despite the prolonged pain involved, he wrote to Idomeneus:

I have written this letter to you on a happy day to me, which is also the last day of my life. For I have been attacked by a painful inability to urinate, and also dysentery, so violent that nothing can be added to the violence of my sufferings. But the cheerfulness of my mind, which comes from the recollection of all my philosophical contemplation, counterbalances all these afflictions. And I beg you to take care of the children of Metrodorus, in a manner worthy of the devotion shown by the young man to me, and to philosophy.[4]

The school

Epicurus’s school had a small but devoted following in his lifetime. The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism. His school was the first of the ancient Greek philosophical schools to admit women as a rule rather than an exception.[5] The original school was based in Epicurus’s home and garden. An inscription on the gate to the garden is recorded by Seneca in epistle XXI of Epistulae morales ad Lucilium[6]:

Stranger, here you will do well to tarry; here our highest good is pleasure.

Epicurus emphasized friendship as an important ingredient of happiness, and the school resembled in many ways a community of friends living together. However, he also instituted a hierarchical system of levels among his followers, and had them swear an oath on his core tenets.



Prefiguring science and ethics

Epicurus is a key figure in the development of science and the scientific method because of his insistence that nothing should be believed, except that which was tested through direct observation and logical deduction. Many of his ideas about nature and physics presaged important scientific concepts of our time. He was a key figure in the Axial Age, the period from 800 BCE to 200 BCE, during which similarly revolutionary thinking appeared in China, India, Iran, the Near East, and Ancient Greece. His statement of the Ethic of Reciprocity as the foundation of ethics is the earliest in Ancient Greece, and he differs from the formulation of utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill by emphasizing the minimization of harm to oneself and others as the way to maximize happiness.

Epicurus’s teachings represented a departure from the other major Greek thinkers of his period, and before, but was nevertheless founded on many of the same principles as Democritus. Like Democritus, he was an atomist, believing that the fundamental constituents of the world were indivisible little bits of matter (atoms, Greek atomos, indivisible) flying through empty space (khaos). Everything that occurs is the result of the atoms colliding, rebounding, and becoming entangled with one another, with no purpose or plan behind their motions. (Compare this with the modern study of particle physics.) His theory differs from the earlier atomism of Democritus because he admits that atoms do not always follow straight lines but their direction of motion may occasionally exhibit a ‘swerve’ (clinamen). This allowed him to avoid the determinism implicit in the earlier atomism and to affirm free will.[7] (Compare this with the modern theory of quantum physics, which postulates a non-deterministic random motion of fundamental particles.)

He regularly admitted women and slaves into his school, introducing the new concept of fundamental human egalitarianism into Greek thought, and was one of the first Greeks to break from the god-fearing and god-worshiping tradition common at the time, even while affirming that religious activities are useful as a way to contemplate the gods and to use them as an example of the pleasant life. Epicurus participated in the activities of traditional Greek religion, but taught that one should avoid holding false opinions about the gods. The gods are immortal and blessed and men who ascribe any additional qualities that are alien to immortality and blessedness are, according to Epicurus, impious. The gods do not punish the bad and reward the good as the common man believes. The opinion of the crowd is, Epicurus claims, that the gods “send great evils to the wicked and great blessings to the righteous who model themselves after the gods,” when in reality Epicurus believes the gods do not concern themselves at all with human beings.

It is not the man who denies the gods worshipped by the multitude, who is impious, but he who affirms of the gods what the multitude believes about them.[8]

Pleasure as absence of suffering

Epicurus’ philosophy is based on the theory that all good and bad derive from the sensations of pleasure and pain. What is good is what is pleasurable, and what is bad is what is painful. Pleasure and pain were ultimately, for Epicurus, the basis for the moral distinction between good and bad. If pain is chosen over pleasure in some cases it is only because it leads to a greater pleasure. Although Epicurus has been commonly misunderstood to advocate the rampant pursuit of pleasure, what he was really after was the absence of pain (both physical and mental, i.e., suffering) – a state of satiation and tranquility that was free of the fear of death and the retribution of the gods. When we do not suffer pain, we are no longer in need of pleasure, and we enter a state of ‘perfect mental peace’ (ataraxia).

Epicurus’ teachings were introduced into medical philosophy and practice by the Epicurean doctor Asclepiades of Bithynia, who was the first physician who introduced Greek medicine in Rome. Asclepiades introduced the friendly, sympathetic, pleasing and painless treatment of patients. He advocated humane treatment of mental disorders, had insane persons freed from confinement and treated them with natural therapy, such as diet and massages. His teachings are surprisingly modern, therefore Asclepiades is considered to be a pioneer physician in psychotherapy, physical therapy and molecular medicine.[9]

Epicurus explicitly warned against overindulgence because it often leads to pain. For instance, in what might be described as a “hangover” theory, Epicurus warned against pursuing love too ardently. However, having a circle of friends you can trust is one of the most important means for securing a tranquil life.

Epicurus also believed (contra Aristotle) that death was not to be feared. When a man dies, he does not feel the pain of death because he no longer is and he therefore feels nothing. Therefore, as Epicurus famously said, “death is nothing to us.” When we exist death is not, and when death exists we are not. All sensation and consciousness ends with death and therefore in death there is neither pleasure nor pain. The fear of death arises from the false belief that in death there is awareness.

In this context Epicurus said: Non fui, fui, non sum, non curo (I was not; I have been; I am not; I do not care) – which is inscribed on the gravestones of his followers and seen on many ancient gravestones of the Roman Empire. This quote is often used today at humanist funerals.[10]

The “Epicurean paradox” is a version of the problem of evil. It is a trilemma argument (God is omnipotent, God is good, but Evil exists); or more commonly seen as this quote:

“Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?”[11]

This argument was a type favoured by the ancient Greek skeptics, and may have been wrongly attributed to Epicurus by Lactantius, who, from his Christian perspective, regarded Epicurus as an atheist.[12] According to Reinhold F. Glei, it is settled that the argument of theodicy is from an academic source which is not only not epicurean, but even anti-epicurean.[13] The earliest extant version of this trilemma appears in the writings of the skeptic Sextus Empiricus.[14]

Epicurus didn’t deny the existence of gods. Instead, he stated that what gods there may be do not concern themselves with us, and thus would not seek to punish us either in this or any other life.[15]

Epicurus emphasized the senses in his epistemology, and his Principle of Multiple Explanations (“if several theories are consistent with the observed data, retain them all”) is an early contribution to the philosophy of science.

There are also some things for which it is not enough to state a single cause, but several, of which one, however, is the case. Just as if you were to see the lifeless corpse of a man lying far away, it would be fitting to list all the causes of death in order to make sure that the single cause of this death may be stated. For you would not be able to establish conclusively that he died by the sword or of cold or of illness or perhaps by poison, but we know that there is something of this kind that happened to him.[16]

In contrast to the Stoics, Epicureans showed little interest in participating in the politics of the day, since doing so leads to trouble. He instead advocated seclusion. His garden can be compared to present-day communes. This principle is epitomized by the phrase lathe biōsas λάθε βιώσας (Plutarchus De latenter vivendo 1128c; Flavius Philostratus Vita Apollonii 8.28.12), meaning “live secretly”, “get through life without drawing attention to yourself”, i. e. live without pursuing glory or wealth or power, but anonymously, enjoying little things like food, the company of friends, etc.

As an ethical guideline, Epicurus emphasized minimizing harm and maximizing happiness of oneself and others:

It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly (agreeing “neither to harm nor be harmed”[17]),
and it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life.[18]


Bust of Epicurus leaning against his disciple Metrodorus in the Louvre Museum

Elements of Epicurean philosophy have resonated and resurfaced in various diverse thinkers and movements throughout Western intellectual history.

The atomic poems (such as ‘All Things are Governed by Atoms’) and natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish were influenced by Epicurus.

His emphasis minimizing harm and maximizing happiness in his formulation of the Ethic of Reciprocity was later picked up by the democratic thinkers of the French Revolution, and others, like John Locke, who wrote that people had a right to “life, liberty, and property.”[citation needed] To Locke, one’s own body was part of their property, and thus one’s right to property would theoretically guarantee safety for their persons, as well as their possessions.

This triad, as well as the egalitarianism of Epicurus, was carried forward into the American freedom movement and Declaration of Independence, by the American founding father, Thomas Jefferson, as “all men are created equal” and endowed with certain “inalienable rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Jefferson considered himself an Epicurean. [2]

In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume uses Epicurus as a character for explaining the impossibility of our knowing God to be any greater or better than his creation proves him to be.

Karl Marx‘s doctoral thesis was on “The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature.” [3]

Epicurus was first to assert human freedom as coming from a fundamental indeterminism in the motion of atoms. This has led some philosophers to think that for Epicurus free will was caused directly by chance. In his “On the Nature of Things,” Lucretius appears to suggest this in the best-known passage on Epicurus’s position.[19] But in his Letter to Menoeceus, Epicurus follows Aristotle and clearly identifies three possible causes – “some things happen of necessity, others by chance, others through our own agency.” Aristotle said some things “depend on us” (eph hemin). Epicurus agreed, and said it is to these last things that praise and blame naturally attach. For Epicurus, the chance “swerve” of the atoms simply defeated determinism to leave room for autonomous agency.[20]

Epicurus was also a significant source of inspiration and interest for both Arthur Schopenhauer, having particular influence on the famous pessimist’s views on suffering and death, as well as one of Schopenhauer’s successors: Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche cites his affinities to Epicurus in a number of his works, including The Gay Science, Beyond Good and Evil, and his private letters to Peter Gast. Nietzsche was attracted to, among other things, Epicurus’s ability to maintain a cheerful philosophical outlook in the face of painful physical ailments. Nietzsche also suffered from a number of sicknesses during his lifetime. However, he thought that Epicurus’s conception of happiness as freedom from anxiety was too passive and negative.


The only surviving complete works by Epicurus are three letters, which are to be found in book X of Diogenes Laertius’s Lives of Eminent Philosophers, and two groups of quotes: the Principal Doctrines, reported as well in Diogenes’s book X, and the Vatican Sayings, preserved in a manuscript from the Vatican Library.

Numerous fragments of his thirty-seven volume treatise On Nature have been found among the charred papyrus fragments at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. In addition, other Epicurean writings found at Herculaneum contain important quotations from his other works. Moreover, numerous fragments and testimonies are found throughout ancient Greek and Roman literature, a collection of which can be found in Usener‘s Epicurea.

Hero cult

According to Diskin Clay, Epicurus himself established a custom of celebrating his birthday annually with common meals, befitting his stature as hero ctistes (or founding hero) of the Garden. He ordained in his will annual memorial feasts for himself on the same date (10th of Gamelion month).[21] Epicurean communities continued this tradition,[22] referring to Epicurus as their “savior” (soter) and celebrating him as hero. Lucretius apotheosized Epicurus as the main character of his epic poem De rerum natura. The hero cult of Epicurus may have operated as a Garden variety civic religion.[23] However, clear evidence of an Epicurean hero cult, as well as the cult itself, seems buried by the weight of posthumous philosophical interpretation.[24] Epicurus’ cheerful demeanor, as he continued to work despite dying from a painful stone blockage of his urinary tract lasting a fortnight, according to his successor Hermarchus and reported by his biographer Diogenes Laertius, further enhanced his status among his followers.[2]

In literature and popular media

In Canto X Circle 6 (“Where the heretics lie”) of Dante‘s Inferno, Epicurus and his followers are criticized for supporting a materialistic ideal.

Epicurus the Sage was a 2 part comic book by William Messner-Loebs and Sam Kieth, portraying Epicurus as “the only sane philosopher.” by anachronistically bringing together Epicurus with many other well known Greek philosophers, republished as graphic novel by the Wildstorm branch of DC Comics.


  1. ^ Apollodorus (reported by Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 10.14-15

) gives his birth on the fourth day of the month February in the third year of the 109th Olympiad, in the archonship of Sosigenes

  1. ^ a b Bitsori, Maria; Galanakis, Emmanouil (2004). “Epicurus’ death”. World Journal of Urology 22 (6): 466–469. doi:10.1007/s00345-004-0448-2

. PMID 15372192


  1. ^ In the second year of the 127th Olympiad, in the archonship of Pytharatus, according to Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 10.15
  1. ^ Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 10.22

(trans. C.D. Yonge).

  1. ^ Two women, Axiothea and Lastheneia, were known to have been admitted by Plato. See Hadot, Pierre. Qu’est-ce que la philosophie antique?, page 99, Gillimard 1995. Pythagoras is also believed to have inducted one woman, Theano, into his order.
  2. ^ “Epistulae morales ad Lucilium”



  1. ^ The only fragment in Greek about this central notion is from the Oenoanda inscription (fr.54 in Smith’s edition). The best known reference is in Lucretius’s On the nature of things, 2.216-224, 284-293


  1. ^ letter by Epicurus to Menoeceus; see Diogenes Laërtius de clarorum philosophorum vitis, dogmatibus et apophthegmatibus libri decem (X, 123)
  2. ^ Yapijakis C (2009). “Hippocrates of Kos, the father of clinical medicine, and Asclepiades of Bithynia, the father of molecular medicine. Review”. In Vivo 23 (4): 507–14. PMID 19567383


  1. ^ Epicurus (c 341-270 BCE)

British Humanist Association

  1. ^ [1]
  1. ^ Mark Joseph Larrimore, (2001), The Problem of Evil, pages xix-xxi. Wiley-Blackwell
  2. ^ Reinhold F. Glei, Et invidus et inbecillus. Das angebliche Epikurfragment bei Laktanz, De ira dei 13,20-21, in: Vigiliae Christianae 42 (1988), p. 47-58
  3. ^ Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 175: “those who firmly maintain that god exists will be forced into impiety; for if they say that he [god] takes care of everything, they will be saying that god is the cause of evils, while if they say that he takes care of some things only or even nothing, they will be forced to say that he is either malevolent or weak”
  4. ^ O’Keefe, Tim. “Epicurus

.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.

  1. ^ Lucretius.
  2. ^ Tim O’Keefe, Epicurus on Freedom

, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.134

  1. ^ Epicurus Principal Doctrines

tranls. by Robert Drew Hicks (1925)

  1. ^ On the Nature of Things, 2.251-262, 289-293


  1. ^ Epicurus page on Information Philosopher
  1. ^ Reason and religion in Socratic philosophy By Nicholas D. Smith, Paul Woodruff Page 160 ISBN 0195133226
  2. ^ Paul and Philodemus: adaptability in Epicurean and early Christian psychology By Clarence E. Glad Page 176 ISBN 9004100679
  3. ^ The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics By Martha Craven Nussbaum Page 119 ISBN 0691141312
  4. ^ Paradosis and survival: three chapters in the history of Epicurean philosophy By Diskin Clay Page 76 ISBN 0472108964
  • Bailey C. (1928) The Greek Atomists and Epicurus, Oxford.
  • Bakalis Nikolaos (2005) Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing, ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
  • The Works of Epicurus, January 2004.
  • Eugene O’ Connor The Essential Epicurus, Prometheus Books, New York 1993.
  • Edelstein Epicureanism, Two Collections of Fragments and Studies Garland Publ. March 1987
  • Farrington, Benjamin. Science and Politics in the Ancient World, 2nd ed. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1965. A Marxist interpretation of Epicurus, the Epicurean movement, and its opponents.
  • John Martin Fischer (1993) “The Metaphysics of Death”, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0804721041
  • Gordon, Pamela. “Epicurus in Lycia: The Second-Century World of Diogenes of Oenoanda.” 1997
  • Gottlieb, Anthony. The Dream of Reason: A History of Western Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance. London: Penguin, 2001. ISBN 0-14-025274-6
  • Inwood, Brad, tr. The Epicurus Reader, Hackett Publishing Co, March 1994.
  • Oates Whitney Jenning, The Stoic and Epicurean philosophers, The Complete Extant Writings of Epicurus, Epictetus, Lucretius and Marcus Aurelius, Random House, 9th printing 1940.
  • Panicha, George A. Epicurus, Twayne Publishers, 1967
  • Prometheus Books, Epicurus Fragments, August 1992.
  • Russel M. Geer Letters, Principal Doctrines, Vatican Sayings, Bobbs-Merrill Co, January 1964.
  • Diogenes of Oinoanda. The Epicurean Inscription, edited with Introduction, Translation and Notes by Martin Ferguson Smith, Bibliopolis, Naples 1993.

– Epicurean Philosophy Online: features classical e-texts & photos of Epicurean artifacts.

– Epicurus and Epicurean Philosophy

entry by David Konstan in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Tim O’Keefe

– Small article by “P. Dionysius Mus”

Karl Marx’s doctoral thesis.

– A documentary on the philosophy of Epicurus, first 11:25 of below, Greek subtitles.

– 24 minute documentary, Alain de Botton, UK Channel 4, no subtitles.

– useful summary of the teachings of Epicurus

Discussion, bibliography, 3D models of the lost portrait


The economist Milton Friedman, who died in 2006, believed government should keep its hands off the economy.

Joblessness is growing. Millions of homes are sliding into foreclosure. The financial system continues to choke on the toxic leftovers of the mortgage crisis. The downward spiral of the economy is challenging a notion that has underpinned American economic policy for a quarter-century — the idea that prosperity springs from markets left free of government interference.

The modern-day godfather of that credo was Milton Friedman, who attributed the worst economic unraveling in American history to regulators, declaring in a 1976 essay that “the Great Depression was produced by government mismanagement.”

Five years later, Ronald Reagan entered the White House, elevating Mr. Friedman’s laissez-faire ideals into a veritable set of commandments. Taxes were cut, regulations slashed and public industries sold into private hands, all in the name of clearing government from the path to riches. As the economy expanded and inflation abated, Mr. Friedman played the role of chief evangelist in the mission to let loose the animal instincts of the market.

But with market forces now seemingly gone feral, disenchantment with regulation has given way to demands for fresh oversight, placing Mr. Friedman’s intellectual legacy under fresh scrutiny.

Just as the Depression remade government’s role in economic life, bringing jobs programs and an expanded welfare system, the current downturn has altered the balance. As Wall Street, Main Street and Pennsylvania Avenue seethe with recriminations, a bipartisan chorus has decided that unfettered markets are in need of fettering. Bailouts, stimulus spending and regulations dominate the conversation.

In short, the nation steeped in the thinking of a man who blamed government for the Depression now beseeches government to lift it to safety. If Mr. Friedman, who died in 2006, were still among us, he would surely be unhappy with this turn.

“What Milton Friedman said was that government should not interfere,” said Allen Sinai, chief global economist for Decision Economics Inc., a consulting group. “It didn’t work. We now are looking at one of the greatest real estate busts of all time. The free market is not geared to take care of the casualties, because there’s no profit motive. There’s no market incentive to deal with the unemployed or those who have lost their homes.”

To Mr. Friedman, such sentiments, when turned into policy, deprived the economy of the vibrancy of market forces.

Born in Brooklyn in 1912 to immigrant parents who worked briefly in sweatshops, Mr. Friedman retained a sense that America was a land of opportunity with ample rewards for the hard-working.

His intellectual bent was forged as a graduate student at the University of Chicago, a base for those who saw themselves as guardians of classical economics in a world then under the spell of woolly-headed revisionists.

The chief object of their scorn was John Maynard Keynes, and his message that government had to juice the economy with spending during times of duress. That notion dominated policy in the years after the Depression. Mr. Friedman would spend much of his career assailing it: He argued that government should simply manage the supply of money — to keep it growing with the economy — then step aside and let the market do its magic.

So firm was his regard for market forces, so deep his disdain for government, that Mr. Friedman once said: “If you put the federal government in charge of the Sahara Desert, in five years there would be a shortage of sand.”

This antagonism toward bureaucracy seemed to spring from Mr. Friedman’s conception of his country as a bastion of rugged individualism. During an interview on PBS in 2000, he noted that Adam Smith, the father of classical economics, published his canonical work, “The Wealth of Nations,” in 1776, “the same year as the American Revolution.”

He spoke in the interview of his concern at the end of World War II that socialism was gaining adherents because countries had been forced to organize collectively to produce armaments.

“You came out of the war with the widespread belief that the war had demonstrated that central planning would work,” Mr. Friedman said. “The left, in particular, … interpreted Russia as a successful experiment in central planning.”

Ronni Scotts

In Being In The Moment, Business, Daily Meditations, Media Dailies, Music For Pleasure, Prime Time News, Readers Choice, The Flying Muse, The Master Class, The Vitriolic Potical Corner, This Day In History, To Deal or Not on September 26, 2010 at 6:56 pm

Ronnie Scott (originally Ronald Schatt) was born in Aldgate, east London, into a family of Russian Jewish descent on his father’s side, and Portuguese antecedents on his mother’s.[1] Scott began playing in small jazz clubs at the age of sixteen. he toured with Johnny Claes, the trumpeter, from 1944 to 1945, and with Ted Heath in 1946, as well as working with Ambrose, Cab Kaye, and Tito Burns. He was involved in the short-lived musicians’ co-operative Club Eleven band and club (1948–1950), with Johnny Dankworth and others, and was a member of the generation of British musicians who worked on the Cunard liner Queen Mary (intermittently 1946–c. 1950) in order to visit New York and hear the new music directly. Scott was among the earliest British musicians to be influenced in his playing style by Charlie Parker and other bebop musicians.

In 1952 Scott joined Jack Parnell‘s orchestra, then led his own nine-piece group and quintet featuring among others, Pete King, with whom he would later open his jazz club, Victor Feldman, Hank Shaw and Phil Seamen from 1953 to 1956. He co-led The Jazz Couriers with Tubby Hayes from 1957 to 1959, and was leader of a quartet including Stan Tracey (1960–1967).

During this period he also did occasional session work; his best-known work here is the solo on The Beatles‘ “Lady Madonna“. He was said to be upset at the amount of his saxophone that made the final cut on the original record. In subsequent recordings Paul McCartney restored greater sections into the song.

From 1967–69, Scott was a member of The Kenny Clarke-Francy Boland Big Band which toured Europe extensively and which also featured fellow tenor players Johnny Griffin and Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis, at the same time running his own octet including John Surman and Kenny Wheeler (1968–1969), and a trio with Mike Carr on keyboards and Bobby Gien on drums (1971–1975). He then went on to lead various groups, most of which included John Critchinson on keyboards and Martin Drew on drums.

Ronnie Scott’s playing was much admired on both sides of the Atlantic. Charles Mingus said of him in 1961: “Of the white boys, Ronnie Scott gets closer to the negro blues feeling, the way Zoot Sims does.”[2] Despite his central position in the British jazz scene, Scott recorded infrequently during the last few decades of his career. He suffered periods of depression and, while recovering slowly from surgery for tooth implants, died at age 69 from an accidental overdose of barbiturates prescribed by his dentist.[3]

He was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium.

The author Joel Lane is Scott’s nephew.

Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club

Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club at 47 Frith Street, Soho, London.

Main article: Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club

Scott is perhaps best remembered for co-founding, with former tenor sax player Pete King, the Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club, which opened on 30 October 1959 in a basement at 39 Gerrard Street in London’s Soho district, with the debut of a young alto sax player named Peter King (no relation), before later moving to a larger venue nearby at 47 Frith Street in 1965. The original venue continued in operation as the “Old Place” until the lease ran out in 1967, and was used for performances by the up and coming generation of domestic musicians.

Scott regularly acted as the club’s genial Master of Ceremonies, and was (in)famous for his repertoire of jokes, asides and one-liners. A typical introduction might go: “Our next guest is one of the finest musicians in the country. In the city, he’s crap”.

After Scott’s death, King continued to run the club for a further nine years, before selling the club to theatre impresario Sally Greene in June 2005.

Selected band line-ups

As well as participating in name orchestras, Scott led or co-led numerous bands featuring some of Britain’s most prominent jazz musicians of the day.

Alan Dean’s Beboppers


Ronnie Scott (ts), Johnny Dankworth (as), Hank Shaw (tp), Tommy Pollard (p), Pete Chilver (g), Joe Muddel (b), Laurie Morgan (d), Alan Dean (vocal).

Ronnie Scott Orchestra

– 1954, 1955

Ronnie Scott (ts), Derek Humble (as), Pete King (ts), Hank Shaw (tp), Ken Wray (tb), Benny Green (bs), Victor Feldman (p), Lennie Bush (b), Phil Seamen (d).

Ronnie Scott Quintet

– 1955

Ronnie Scott (ts), Hank Shaw (tp), Victor Feldman (p), Sammy Stokes/Lennie Bush (b), Phil Seamen (d).

Ronnie Scott Big Band

– 1955

Ronnie Scott, Pete King, (ts), Joe Harriott, Doug Robinson (as), Benny Green (bs), Stan Palmer, Hank Shaw, Dave Usden, Jimmy Watson, (tp) Jack Botterill, Robin Kaye, Mac Minshull, Ken Wray (tb), Norman Stenfalt (p), Eric Peter (b), Phil Seamen (d).

The Jazz Couriers

Ronnie Scott (ts), Tubby Hayes (ts, vib), Terry Shannon (p), Phil Bates (b), Bill Eyden (d).

(On 7 April 1957, The Jazz Couriers co-led by Tubby Hayes and Ronnie Scott, debuted at the new Flamingo Club in Wardour Street, Soho. The group lasted until 30 August 1959).

Ronnie Scott Quartet


Ronnie Scott (ts), Stan Tracey (p), Malcolm Cecil (b), Jackie Dougan (d).

Ronnie Scott Quintet


Dick Pearce (tp), Ronnie Scott (ts), John Critchinson (p), Ron Mathewson (b), Martin Drew (d).

Selected discography

  • 1948: Boppin’ at Esquire (indigo)
  • 1958: The Couriers of Jazz! (Carlton/Fresh Sounds)
  • 1965: The Night Is Scott and You’re So Swingable (Redial)
  • 1965: When I Want Your Opinion, I’ll Give it to You (Jazz House)
  • 1969: Live at Ronnie Scott’s (Columbia)
  • 1977: Serious Gold (Pye)
  • 1990: Never Pat a Burning Dog (Jazz House)
  • 1997: If I Want Your Opinion (Jazz House)
  • 1997: The Night Has a Thousand Eyes (Jazz House)
  • 2000: Boppin’ at Esquire (Indigo)
  • 2002: Ronnie Scott Live at the Jazz Club (Time Music)

See also


  • Clarke, Donald (Ed.). The Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music, Viking, 1989.
  • Kernfeld, Barry Dean (Ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, Macmillan Press, 1988.
  • Kington, Miles; Gelly, Dave. The Giants of Jazz, Schirmer Books, 1986.
  • Larkin, Colin. The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 3rd edition, Macmillan, 1998.
  • Ruppli, Michel; Novitsky, Ed. The Mercury Labels. A discography, Vol. V., Record and Artist Indexes, Greenwood Press, 1993.
  1. ^ The Man Behind The Club (Retrieved March 10, 2010)
  2. ^ “Ronnie Scott”, Brian Priestley, in Carr et al.
  3. ^ Jazz and death: medical profiles of jazz greats By Frederick J. Spencer. University Press of Mississippi. Page 2010
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (January 2010)

[Reprinted from Wikipedia]

Vocalist – General, Vocalist – Bass, Vocalist – Baritone, Vocalist – Tenor, Vocalist – Soprano, Rhythm Guitar, Lead Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Bass Guitar, Drums, Other Percussion, Violin, Trumpet, Saxophone, Keyboard, Piano, Background Singer, Harmonica, Flute, Other, Banjo, Mandolin, Fiddle, Dobro.


John Francis Anthony Pastorius III (December 1, 1951 – September 21, 1987), better known as Jaco Pastorius, was an American jazz musician and composer widely acknowledged for his skills as an electric bass player.
His playing style was noteworthy for containing intricate solos in the higher register. His innovations also included the use of harmonics and the “singing” quality of his melodies on fretless bass. Pastorius suffered from mental illness including a Substance-related disorder, and was diagnosed with bipolar disorder in 1982. He died in 1987 at age 35 following a violent altercation at a Fort Lauderdale drinking establishment.
Pastorius was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1988, one of only four bassists to be so honored (and the only electric bass guitarist). He is regarded as one of the most influential bass players of all time.

Listen Now…


In Business on September 26, 2010 at 2:54 pm


Swiss big bank rules to go further than Basel III: report
Sun Sep 26, 2010 9:34am EDT

ZURICH (Reuters) – Swiss regulators will ask big banks UBS(UBS.N)(UBSN.VX) and Credit Suisse (CSGN.VX) to go one step further than their international competitors in the amounts of core capital they hold, a newspaper reported on Sunday.

A commission of experts on the “too-big-to-fail” issue would hand a report on Thursday to the Swiss Finance Ministry proposing Switzerland’s two largest banks should hold core capital of around 12 percent — 2.5 to 5 percent more than foreign competitors — SonntagsZeitung reported, citing commission sources.

Details of the report could be made public as early as Monday and the Swiss government was expected to discuss the proposals on Friday, the paper said.

Under new, international “Basel III” rules agreed earlier this month, banks will be required to hold top-quality capital — known as “core Tier 1” capital, and consisting of equity or retained earnings — worth at least 4.5 percent of assets and a “capital conservation buffer” of common equity equaling 2.5 percent of assets, bringing the total top-quality capital requirement to 7 percent.

They will also have to build a separate “countercyclical buffer” of between zero and 2.5 percent when the credit markets are booming.

Top officials at Swiss financial regulator FINMA and at the Swiss National Bank backed the Basel III reform package but said the new set of rules did not go far enough in addressing the problem of how to stop a big bank’s failure dragging down the whole country’s economy.

In the past Credit Suisse and UBS were also expected to comply with the “Swiss finish,” a domestic layer of bank capital regulation that went above international standards.

Credit Suisse would need around 15 billion of new capital and UBS 5.5 billion to reach the new 12 percent minimum for core capital, SonntagsZeitung said.

The two banks would consider contingent convertibles — debt that is converted into shares if a specified event occurs — to bolster their core capital if needed, the paper added.

Analysts have said retained earnings should suffice for UBS and Credit Suisse to build core capital that meets additional Swiss requirements of 3 percent above those in Basel III.

(Reporting by Jason Rhodes; Editing by Louise Heavens)

World Builder

In Business, Daily Meditations on September 24, 2010 at 5:12 pm

…Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or Bends with the remover to remove.
O, no! It is an ever-fixed mark,
That looks on tempests and is never shaken.
It is the star to every wandering bark,
whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken.

World Builder from BranitVFX on Vimeo.

HSBC confirms boardroom shake-up

Mike Geoghegan
Mike Geoghegan is the latest banking boss to leave his position

HSBC has confirmed that its chief executive Michael Geoghegan is to be replaced by Stuart Gulliver – currently the head of the group’s investment bank.

Douglas Flint, currently HSBC’s finance director, has also been confirmed as the replacement for outgoing chairman Stephen Green.

Mr Green took up an offer of a UK government role earlier this month.

The moves mark a significant shake-up of leadership at the UK’s biggest bank.

Earlier HSBC denied reports that Mr Geoghegan was quitting after being told he was being overlooked for the position of chairman.


We need to restore trust in the banking industry by learning from mistakes made in recent years”

End Quote Douglas Flint In-coming chairman of HSBC

The bank has a history of promoting its chief executive to the chairmanship and Mr Geoghegan had been seen as a front-runner in the race to replace Mr Green.

In a conference call following the announcement Mr Geoghegan denied there had been any ill feelings over the chairman’s job.

“It’s been historical at this company that the chief executive goes on to be chairman but you have to be asked, and the reality was I wasn’t asked,” he said, adding that Mr Green’s decision to leave had “triggered” him to consider his own future.

‘Fundamental change’

In its statement HSBC said the appointment of Mr Flint as chairman has been made by a unanimous decision of the board.

“The nomination committee came to the unanimous conclusion that Douglas Flint was the best person – internally or externally – for the position, meeting all the core criteria,” it said.

Stuart Gulliver
Stuart Gulliver will be HSBC’s new chief executive, having headed the group’s investment bank

His appointment has also been approved by the City regulator, the Financial Services Authority (FSA).

Mr Flint called the appointment “a privilege”.

“Our industry is in the midst of fundamental change which will redefine have banks operate,” he said.

“At the same time we need to restore trust in the banking industry by learning from mistakes made in recent years.”

Mr Geoghegan gave no indication of any boardroom bitterness in his statement, calling Mr Flint and his own replacement Stuart Gulliver “an awesome combination”.

Mr Gulliver will take over as the new chief executive from January next year.

The moves are the latest in a series of moves among the UK’s top bankers.

Earlier this week the chief executive of the Lloyds Banking Group, Eric Daniels, announced his plan to retire in a year’s time.

And earlier this month one of the world’s highest paid bankers, Bob Diamond, was confirmed as the next chief executive of Barclays.



In Business on September 24, 2010 at 3:04 pm

Networking should be part of your business creed. If it’s not, then you’re not paying proper attention and making use of every opportunity in front of you. There are networking opportunities that can turn into business relationships happening all the time. You just have to recognise and make use of them.

That means a lot of focus and concentration, all day, every day. It might seem like a great deal of effort, but after a little while it becomes second nature.

What’s a Networking Opportunity?

It would be easy to say “everything,” but it would also be an exaggeration. You won’t find one when you’re paying for groceries at the supermarket, for instance. Or will you? Perhaps the line is long and you strike up a conversation with the person behind you. He’s in business, in a field associated with yours.

Now that’s an ideal opportunity. You already have a bond – the grind of being in a queue – and you can exchange cards (always carry your business cards, even at weekends) and contact each other later. The unlikeliest event has just turned into a networking opportunity.

Something like that won’t happen often, but it does happen, and you need to be alert to take advantage of it. You might not be at work, but that doesn’t mean you can switch off. You need to remain ready.

There truly are networking opportunities everywhere. Start talking in the pub and you might find one, or if you stop at motorway services.

Being Aware

A lot of it is in your mindset. If you begin looking for networking opportunities in every facet of your life, you’re going to find them on a regular basis. You simply have to keep reminding yourself that they’re there, all around you.

Train yourself to it. You spend five days a week working. All those phone calls can be networking contacts, and the same with the e-mails you reply to or send. Think how you can leverage them into real networking contacts. What can you offer them that’s useful? Think in the long term. It’s not about one call or mail, but about building a relationship with someone. Networking, ideally, should be mutually beneficial. That rarely happens overnight, and in business, just like everywhere else, relationships take time to grow, so nurture the relationship.

Applying The Lesson

Once you begin looking at things with your new attitude, you’ll start seeing plenty of networking opportunities. It takes work and energy to pursue them all, but work can be a demanding mistress if you’re doing it properly, it demands a lot of dedication, and if you’re going to be truly successful, you have to give it that.

A lot of networking isn’t in making the contacts, but following them up and developing them. That’s what separates those with an interest from those who are really determined. Make the time to follow up on each contact (use the back of their business card to make a few notes about them as a memory aid). It doesn’t need to be a major communication, just a quick e-mail or phone call to start the ball rolling. Things will grow from there.


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Sep 24th 2010, 7:32 by K.C. | TOKYO

IN THE end, it came down to economic ties versus national pride. Business concerns prevailed—and so did China, in a sense. A bitter feud with Japan had been escalating since September 7th, when a Chinese fishing boat ran into a Japanese patrol in waters which both countries claim as sovereign territory. Today Japan released the boat’s Chinese skipper, who had been accused of bashing into the two Japanese vessels deliberately. With the release of the captain, Zhan Qixiong, the diplomatic world breathes a sigh of relief. But how to score this match? Japan comes off looking weak, as it succumbs to an avalanche of pressure. But the ferocity of the Chinese response has harmed China ultimately, by undermining confidence in China as a responsible stakeholder in the region.

Japan’s prosecutors chose not to indict Mr Zhan on the grounds that his act was not premeditated, according to Kyodo, the Japanese news agency. But the real reason was the vehemence of China’s reaction. Since the fishing crew and its captain were arrested, China has continually ratcheted up the pressure to have them returned. It cut diplomatic communications and even arrested four Japanese nationals, allegedly for filming in a restricted military area. China’s response seemed to take an especially nefarious turn when it apparently suspended its export of rare-earth minerals, which are vital to making electronics components used in everything from handheld gadgets to cars. On September 23rd China emphatically denied that it is blocking exports. And this may be true: there probably isn’t a formal directive. But in a country where informal rules abound, exporters know that it can pay to withhold shipments—in solidarity with a government that is angry at its neighbour.

At its heart, the squabble was not only about the Senkaku islands, called the Diaoyu by the Chinese, where the boat collision took place earlier this month. Instead, it was likely a message to other countries with which China has territorial disputes, particularly in the South China Sea. This week China showed that it is willing to go to extraordinary lengths to exert its maritime claims. Lately it has taken to calling the South China Sea, which it disputes with five of its South-East Asian neighbours, a “core national interest”.

Moreover, it forced the new Japanese government and Naoto Kan, its prime minister, to make a hard choice: between a handful of uninhabited rocks, far from Japan’s main islands, and the future of its economy. Japan’s decision not to go to the wall for its territorial claims looks expedient, but it may come to haunt it in the long term.

This has also been a test of China, though in a way the country seems not to understand. Its actions have called into question its maturity as a responsible international actor and undermined its pretensions to a “peaceful rise”. Other states observe a host of traditions to help see them work through border disputes and express their displeasure with one another. The melodrama of China’s reaction, entirely disproportionate to the matter at hand, made it impossible for the two sides to find a mutually acceptable outcome. The acute crisis may be over but this resolution is sure to usher in an extended period of chill between the countries.

Which is a terrible outcome. Until recently, both countries had seen their economies flourishing as a result of strengthening trade ties. Since 2009 China has been Japan’s number-one trading partner. And the new Democratic Party of Japan government is the most pro-China administration in recent times. All this goodwill is lost.


Business News

In Business on September 24, 2010 at 2:59 pm

“In life you don’t get what you deserve,
you get what you strategize for”

Strategy is the mean by which objectives are consciously and systematically pursued and obtained over time.

The word “strategy” derives from the Greek word stratçgos; which derives from two words: –

  • “stratos” – meaning army.
  • “ago” – which is the ancient Greek for leading/guiding/moving.

In its military aspect, the term had to do with stratagems by which a general sought to defeat an enemy, with plans he made for a campaign, and with the way, he moved and disposed his forces in war.

The strategy definition most commonly known today is as the art of analysing, projecting and directing campaigns.

Strategy is not planning. Strategy deals with competitive situation in an uncontrolled environment.

Planning deals with situations in a controlled environment.

Strategy is the greatest “winning tool” that man ever invented!

It enables the practitioners to see clearly the future of any encounter they undertake – Whilst reacting rationally and consciously without the need for intuition or guesswork.

It is the Art of the “Conscious Mind”; the Art of the General in the battlefield; therefore, it is:

“A style of thinking; a conscious and deliberate process; an intensive implementation system; the art of ensuring future success.”

When you know “what strategy is”, have learnt and practiced, you develop the strategist’s mind. “The Thinking General” has trained himself to think several moves ahead of his opponents.

Strategy is the art of success in utilisation of the mind; for the last 2500 years, it has been the preserve knowledge of the ruling classes in politics and business throughout the world.

Strategy, “the thinking of the General” is the Forbidden and Secret Art of Success for thousands of years!

“All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.”

Sun Tzu the Art of War


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Harry Potter Books Wanted, Book Shops in Rushden | Buy My Business

In Business, To Deal or Not on September 23, 2010 at 3:26 pm


Harry Potter Books Wanted – Examples of Books Wanted: Ian Fleming – James Bond – will pay £5,000+ Full list of Ian Fleming 007 books urgently sought. Detective Fiction especially pre 1945 in dust jacket We are prepared to pay huge sums for interesting crime fiction titles. Any pre 1945 Collins Crime Club titles in dust jackets. Complete & detailed list of detective fiction sought. Classics of fiction from Dickens to Tolkien and everything in between. Highest Prices Paid!! With clients waiting for the right books. We can pay the very highest prices,If in doubt please just drop us a line. You may be astonished to find what your books are worth? The only things we are unable to buy are. Book club editions and paperbacks Coffee table type nonfiction etc.

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Milton Friedman – Greed

In Business on September 22, 2010 at 1:51 pm

LIBERTARIAN The economist Milton Friedman, who died in 2006, believed government should keep its hands off the economy.


Published: April 13, 2008

Joblessness is growing. Millions of homes are sliding into foreclosure. The financial system continues to choke on the toxic leftovers of the mortgage crisis. The downward spiral of the economy is challenging a notion that has underpinned American economic policy for a quarter-century — the idea that prosperity springs from markets left free of government interference.

The modern-day godfather of that credo was Milton Friedman, who attributed the worst economic unraveling in American history to regulators, declaring in a 1976 essay that “the Great Depression was produced by government mismanagement.”

Five years later, Ronald Reagan entered the White House, elevating Mr. Friedman’s laissez-faire ideals into a veritable set of commandments. Taxes were cut, regulations slashed and public industries sold into private hands, all in the name of clearing government from the path to riches. As the economy expanded and inflation abated, Mr. Friedman played the role of chief evangelist in the mission to let loose the animal instincts of the market.

But with market forces now seemingly gone feral, disenchantment with regulation has given way to demands for fresh oversight, placing Mr. Friedman’s intellectual legacy under fresh scrutiny.

Just as the Depression remade government’s role in economic life, bringing jobs programs and an expanded welfare system, the current downturn has altered the balance. As Wall Street, Main Street and Pennsylvania Avenue seethe with recriminations, a bipartisan chorus has decided that unfettered markets are in need of fettering. Bailouts, stimulus spending and regulations dominate the conversation.

In short, the nation steeped in the thinking of a man who blamed government for the Depression now beseeches government to lift it to safety. If Mr. Friedman, who died in 2006, were still among us, he would surely be unhappy with this turn.

“What Milton Friedman said was that government should not interfere,” said Allen Sinai, chief global economist for Decision Economics Inc., a consulting group. “It didn’t work. We now are looking at one of the greatest real estate busts of all time. The free market is not geared to take care of the casualties, because there’s no profit motive. There’s no market incentive to deal with the unemployed or those who have lost their homes.”

To Mr. Friedman, such sentiments, when turned into policy, deprived the economy of the vibrancy of market forces.

Born in Brooklyn in 1912 to immigrant parents who worked briefly in sweatshops, Mr. Friedman retained a sense that America was a land of opportunity with ample rewards for the hard-working.

His intellectual bent was forged as a graduate student at the University of Chicago, a base for those who saw themselves as guardians of classical economics in a world then under the spell of woolly-headed revisionists.

The chief object of their scorn was John Maynard Keynes, and his message that government had to juice the economy with spending during times of duress. That notion dominated policy in the years after the Depression. Mr. Friedman would spend much of his career assailing it: He argued that government should simply manage the supply of money — to keep it growing with the economy — then step aside and let the market do its magic.

So firm was his regard for market forces, so deep his disdain for government, that Mr. Friedman once said: “If you put the federal government in charge of the Sahara Desert, in five years there would be a shortage of sand.”

This antagonism toward bureaucracy seemed to spring from Mr. Friedman’s conception of his country as a bastion of rugged individualism. During an interview on PBS in 2000, he noted that Adam Smith, the father of classical economics, published his canonical work, “The Wealth of Nations,” in 1776, “the same year as the American Revolution.”

He spoke in the interview of his concern at the end of World War II that socialism was gaining adherents because countries had been forced to organize collectively to produce armaments.

“You came out of the war with the widespread belief that the war had demonstrated that central planning would work,” Mr. Friedman said. “The left, in particular, … interpreted Russia as a successful experiment in central planning.”

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Worldometers – real time world statistics

In Business on September 21, 2010 at 1:25 am

Worldometers – real time world statistics.

In the Beginning was the word.

It matters not whether you believe that mankind dates back to the primitive ape-man of 500,000 years ago, or sprang full-grown from the mind of the creator. In either event, there had to be a first cause—a creator. Some power had to bring to this earth the first germ of life, and the creation is no less wonderful if it started with the lowliest form of plant life and worked up through countless ages into the highest product of today’s civilization, than if the whole were created in six days.

In the beginning, this earth was just a fire mist—six thousand or a billion years ago—what does it matter which?

The one thing that does matter is that some time, some way, there came to this planet the germ of life—the life principle that animates all nature—plant, animal, and man. If we accept the scientists’ version of it, the first form in which life appeared upon earth was the humble algae—a jelly-like mass that floated upon the waters. This, according to the scientists, was the beginning, the dawn of life upon the earth.

Next came the first bit of animal life— the lowly amoeba, a sort of jelly fish, consisting of a single cell, without vertebrae, and with very little else to distinguish it from the water round about. But it had life—the first bit of animal life—and from that life, according to the scientists, we could trace everything we have and are today.

All the millions of forms and shapes and varieties of plants and animals that have since appeared are but different manifestations of life——formed to meet differing conditions. For millions of years this “Life Germ” was threatened by every kind of danger—from floods, from earthquakes, from droughts, from desert heat, from glacial cold, from volcanic eruptions—but to it each new danger was merely an incentive to finding a new resource, to putting forth Life in some new shape.

To meet one set of needs, it formed the dinosaur—to meet another, the butterfly. Long before it worked up to man, we see its unlimited resourcefulness shown in a thousand ways. To escape danger in the water, it sought land. Pursued on land, it took to the air. To breathe in the sea, it developed gills. Stranded on land, it perfected lungs. To meet one kind of danger it grew a shell. For another, a sting. To protect itself from glacial cold, it grew fur, in temperate climates, hair. Subject to alternate heat and cold, it produced feathers. But ever, from the beginning, it showed its power to meet every changing condition, to answer every creature need.

Had it been possible to kill this “Life idea,” it would have perished ages ago, when fire and flood, drought and famine followed each other in quick succession. But obstacles, misfortunes, cataclysms, were to it merely new opportunities to assert its power. In fact, it required obstacles to awaken it, to show its energy and resource.

The great reptiles, the monster beasts of antiquity passed on. But the “Life Principle” stayed, changing as each age changed, always developing, and always improving.

Whatever power it was that brought this “Life Idea” to the earth, it came endowed with unlimited resource, unlimited energy, unlimited LIFE! No other force can defeat it. No obstacle can hold it back. All through the history of life and mankind you can see its directing intelligence—call it nature, call it providence, call it what you will—rising to meet every need of life.

The Purpose of Existence

No one can follow it down through the ages without realizing that the whole purpose of existence is GROWTH. Life is dynamic—not static. It is ever moving forward—not standing still. The one unpardonable sin of nature is to stand still, to stagnate. The Giganotosaurus, that was over a hundred feet long and as big as a house; the Tyrannosaurus, that had the strength of a locomotive and was the last word in frightfulness; the Pterodactyl or Flying Dragon—all the giant monsters of Prehistoric Ages—are gone. They ceased to serve a useful purpose. They did not know how to meet the changing conditions. They stood still—stagnated—while the life around them passed them by.

Egypt and Persia, Greece and Rome, all the great Empires of antiquity, perished when they ceased to grow. China built a wall about her and stood still for a thousand years. Today she is the football of the powers. In all nature, to cease to grow is to perish.

It is for men and women who are not ready to stand still, who refuse to cease to grow, that this book is written. It will give you a clearer understanding of your own potentialities, show you how to work with and take advantage of the infinite energy all about you.

The terror of the man at the crossways, not knowing which road to take, will be no terror to you. Your future is of your own making. For the only law of infinite energy is the law of supply. The “Life Principle” is your principle. To survive, to win through, and to triumphantly surmount all obstacles has been its everyday practice since the beginning of time. It is no less resourceful now than ever it was. You have but to supply the urge, to work in harmony with it, to get from it anything you may need.

For if this “Life Principle” is so strong in the lowest forms of animal life that it can develop a shell or a poison to meet a need; if it can teach the bird to circle and dart, to balance and fly; if it can grow a new limb on a spider to replace a lost one, how much more can it do for you— a reasoning, rational being, with a mind able to work with this “Life Principle,” with an energy and an initiative to urge it on!

The evidence of this is all about you. Take up some violent form of exercise— rowing, tennis, and swimming, riding. In the beginning your muscles are weak, easily tired. But keep on for a few days. The “Life Principle” promptly strengthens them, toughens them, to meet their new need. Do rough manual labour—and what happens? The skin of your hands becomes tender, blisters, and hurts. Keep it up, and does the skin all wear off? On the contrary, the “Life Principle” provides extra thickness’, extra toughness— calluses, we call them—to meet your need.

All through your daily life you will find this “Life Principle” steadily at work. Embrace it, work with it, take it to yourself, and there is nothing you cannot do. The mere fact that you have obstacles to overcome is in your favour, for when there is nothing to be done, when things run along too smoothly; this “Life Principle” seems to sleep. It is when you need it, when you call upon it urgently, that it is most on the job.

It differs from “Luck” in this, that fortune is a fickle jade that smiles most often on those who need her least. Stake your last penny on the turn of a card— have nothing between you and ruin but the spin of a wheel or the speed of a horse—and its a thousand to one “Luck” will desert you! But it is just the opposite with the “Life Principle.” As long as things run smoothly, as long as life flows along like a song, this “Life Principle” seems to slumber, secure in the knowledge that your affairs can take care of themselves.

But let things start going wrong, let ruin and disgrace stare you in the face— then is the time this “Life Principle” will assert itself if you but give it a chance.

The “Open, Sesame!” of Life

There is a Napoleonic feeling of power that insures success in the knowledge that this invincible “Life Principle” is behind your every act. Knowing that you have working with you a force, which never yet has failed in anything it has undertaken, you can go ahead in the confident knowledge that it will not fail in your case, either. The ingenuity, which overcame every obstacle

The Search For The Neo-Business Elixir

In Business on September 19, 2010 at 3:03 pm

Jean Paul Getty (1892-1976) was a billionaire independent oil producer who founded and controlled the Getty Oil Company and over 200 affiliated companies.

Jean Paul Getty was born on December 15, 1892, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. His father, George Franklin Getty, was a lawyer, but in 1904 he moved his wife, Sarah Risher Getty, and his son to the Oklahoma territory to begin a successful career as an independent oilman. Two years later the family moved to Los Angeles, California, where young Getty attended private school before graduating from Polytechnic High School in 1909. After a European tour he attended the University of Southern California and the University of California at Berkeley; he spent his summers working on his father’s oil rigs as a “roustabout.” In 1912 Getty enrolled in Oxford University in England, from which he received a degree in economics and political science in 1914.

In 1914 Getty arrived in Tulsa, Oklahoma, determined to strike it rich as a wildcat oil producer. Although he operated independently of his father’s Minnehoma Oil Company, his father’s loans and financial backing enabled him to begin buying and selling oil leases in the red-bed area of Oklahoma. Getty saw himself as a modern oil man, relying on geological data and not simply on the instinct of the experienced veterans, but he also thrived on the excitement, gamble, risks, and high stakes of the oil business. Getty’s own first successful well came in in 1916, and by the fall of that year he had made his first million dollars as a wildcatter and lease broker.

For the next two years Getty “retired” to the life of a wealthy playboy in Los Angeles, but he returned to the oil business in 1919. During the 1920s he and his father continued to be enormously successful both in drilling their own wells and in buying and selling oil leases, and Getty became more active in California than in Oklahoma. He amassed a personal fortune of over three million dollars and acquired a third interest in what was to become the Getty Oil Company.

After his father’s death in 1930 Paul Getty became the president of the George Getty Oil Company (successor to Minnehoma Oil), but his mother inherited the controlling interest, as his father had been upset with his son’s profligate personal life. During the 1930s Getty followed several paths to both short-term and long-term success. His wells continued to produce, and profits poured in. He also bought a controlling interest in the Pacific Western Oil Corporation, one of the ten largest oil companies in California. After a series of agreements with his mother he obtained the controlling interest in the George Getty Oil Company, and he began real estate dealings, including the purchase of the Hotel Pierre in New York City.

The Getty Oil Company

Getty’s ambition was to build up an independent, self-contained oil business involving refining, transporting, and selling oil as well as exploration and drilling. To that end he began in the 1930s to gain control of the Tidewater Oil Company. Getty pursued that goal in a series of complicated maneuvers, which involved tilting with the giant Standard Oil of New Jersey, until in the 1950s he had control of Tidewater, Skelly Oil, and the Mission Corporation. In 1967 these companies merged into the Getty Oil Company, the foundation of Getty’s fortune. Getty had a majority or controlling interest in Getty Oil and its nearly 200 affiliated and subsidiary firms, and he remained its president until his death in 1976.

At the outbreak of World War II, Getty, a yachtsman, volunteered for service in the Navy, but his offer was rejected. At the request of Naval officers, however, he took over personal management of Spartan Aircraft, a Skelly and Getty subsidiary. The corporation manufactured trainers and airplane parts, and it later converted to the profitable production of mobile homes.

After the war Getty took a lucrative gamble on oil rights in the Middle East. In 1949 he secured the oil rights in Saudi Arabia‘s half of the Neutral Zone, a barren tract between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. He made major concessions to King Saud, which shocked the large oil companies, but after three years and a $30 million investment, Getty found the huge oil deposits which helped make him a billionaire.

In his business career, Getty continued to invest and reinvest; his fortune consisted not of cash, but stocks, corporate assets, and real estate. A loner, he saw himself as a solitary knight in fierce battle with the giant “Seven Sisters” oil firms, and that competitive urge fueled his desire to build a larger and larger fortune.

A “Public” Personal Life

In 1957 Fortune magazine published a list of the richest men in America. Getty’s name headed the list, and the resultant publicity turned the reclusive Getty into an object of public fascination and legend. Getty complained about the fame, the requests for money, and the assumption that he would pick up every restaurant check, but he also furthered his own legends: he wrote articles on such topics as “How To Be Rich” and pretended to poverty by wearing rumpled suits and threadbare sweaters. The public was fascinated by Getty’s wealth and extravagance and also by his reputed stinginess. After 1959 he stopped living out of hotel rooms and established his home and offices at Sutton Place, a 16th-century, 700-acre manor outside London. The huge estate, with its gardens, pools, trout stream, and priceless furnishings, was also a near garrison, with elaborate security arrangements. Giant Alsatian dogs had the run of the estate, and there were also two caged lions, Nero and Teresa. Numerous stories circulated about Getty’s penny-pitching; the most famous incident was the installation of a pay telephone on the Sutton Place grounds. Getty offered various explanations, but the public preferred to see the phone booth as a symbol of his stinginess.

The public also seemed to like to read into Getty’s life the lesson that money does not buy happiness. Getty was married five times: to Jeannette Dumont (1923), Allene Ashby (1925), Adolphine Helmle (1928), Ann Rork (1932), and Louisa Lynch (1939); each marriage ended in divorce. He had five sons, two of whom predeceased him, and his relationship with each of them was difficult. His grandson, J. Paul Getty III, was kidnapped in Italy in 1973. Although he was returned for a ransom, part of his ear had been cut off. Getty was a celebrity, and public interest, fueled by envy and admiration, focused on Getty’s tragedies as well as his billions.

Besides oil, Getty’s major interest was art. He began serious collecting in the 1930s – European paintings, furniture, Greek and Roman sculptures, 18th-century tapestries, silver, and fine Persian carpets, including the 16th-century Ardabil carpet from Tabriz. He housed his collection at Sutton Place and at his ranch house at Malibu, California, one wing of which he opened as the J. Paul Getty Museum in 1954. In 1969 construction began on a new Getty Museum, also on his Malibu property. The huge building is a replica of an ancient Roman villa found near the ruins of Pompeii, and the extensive Getty collection was moved thereafter his death.

Jean Paul Getty died at Sutton Place on June 6, 1976; he is buried on his Malibu estate.

Further Reading

Getty wrote two autobiographies, My Life and Fortunes (1963) and As I See It (1976). He wrote about his art collection in The Joys of Collecting (1965) and published such advice books as How To Be Rich (1965) and How To Be A Successful Executive (1971). A biography written with Getty’s cooperation is Ralph Hewins, The Richest American: J. Paul Getty (1960); the New York Times obituary of June 6, 1976, also provides useful information. In The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped (1975) Anthony Sampson discusses Getty’s role as an independent oil producer. Two biographies in 1986 added little new information: The House of Getty by Russell Miller and The Great Getty: The Life and Loves of J. Paul Getty – Richest Man in the World by Robert Lenzner.

“Why You Should Buy Only
Foundation Endorsed and
Authorized Materials”

By Robert Johnson
Napoleon Hill Foundation
General Counsel

The Napoleon Hill Foundation is a not for profit charitable institution which uses the revenues it receives from sales of its books and audios for educational purposes. Its principal activities are funding scholarships, professorships and courses at the University of Virginia at Wise, Virginia and Purdue University-Calumet, and instructing adult and juvenile correctional institution inmates in Dr. Hill’s seventeen principles.

Unfortunately, there are some publishers of Napoleon Hill’s materials who are not authorized by the Foundation. While we do what we can to curtail these publications, we are not able to stop them all. We ask our loyal followers to avoid these unauthorized publications for two main reasons. First, many have been altered, either by deletions or additions to the original text, often undisclosed, and are accordingly not one hundred percent authentic Napoleon Hill material. Second, our Foundation receives no revenue from sales of these materials to use for its educational purposes.

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How can you know if a book or audio is authorized? There are several things to look for. First, on our newer books, look for our logo, shown here, on the back cover. Second, many of our newer books were edited or co-written by our World Learning Center Director, Judith Williamson. When you see her name on the cover or title page you can be sure it is authentic. Third, many of our older books and audios are published by Random House and other publishers under licenses signed by Napoleon Hill himself. They do not carry the logo or Ms. Williamson’s name. Please look at the “copyright page”, usually the first page after the cover of a book, and at the audio packaging or envelope; if it contains the phrase “Copyright 19__ or 20__ by The Napoleon Hill Foundation” you will know it is an authorized edition.

We know the readers of this message are loyal followers of Napoleon Hill and his principles. Please apply one of them and “go the extra mile” to be sure you are buying authorized products. We greatly appreciate your support.

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When considering purchasing any book where Napoleon Hill is listed as the author, the Napoleon Hill Foundation would deeply appreciate it if you would check the copyright page on the inside of the book. If the copyright does not show copyright © by the Napoleon Hill Foundation no royalty is being paid to the non-profit Napoleon Hill Foundation. Should you have a question, please contact the Napoleon Hill Foundation.Thank you for your consideration in this matter.

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Napoleon Hill Continues to Inspire

Napoleon Hill’s Great Thoughts Screensaver

Seventeen Principles of Success – A Musical Overview
Arranged and Performed by Antonio Castillo de la Gala, Pianist

Certain types of music have been shown to accelerate learning. Magical effects can occur when the ingredients of music are used to advance and underscore instruction. Both the emotional tone and the intellectual message of music can aid in the retention of new learning and assist in unblocking any abilities that may have become closed due to emotional constraints such as worry, fear, and anger. Used in combination with the study of Napoleon Hill’s 17 Success Principles, this CD performed by Antonio Castillo de la Gala is certain to enhance your life not only due to the music played, but also due to the intended alignment with the Principles of Success. Enjoy the performance and remember the message. Both are worthy of the investment of your time and energy.

Judith Williamson Director, Napoleon Hill World Learning Center

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God Hates A Fag: The World View of An Accepted Religion

The relationship between cults and drug use is complex and contradictory. Traditionally, cults are groups that diverge from major religions or that form new philosophical/religious systems, often around a charismatic leader. Consequently, at any given time, it may be difficult to distinguish a cult from a newly formed religion. Some cults last and become new religions; some remain cults, some die. The line is hard to draw and open to interpretation, even by social scientists and the clergy who specialize in this field.


Historically, some cults and cultlike groups have sponsored the use of drugs as an integral aspect of ritual. In ancient Greece, for example, the use of ergot (genus Claviceps), a fungus that grows on grains and causes hallucinations, appears to have played a significant role in the rituals of the Eleusinian mysteries, celebrated in worship of the goddesses Demeter and her daughter Persephone. As poets noted, “I have seen the truth within the kernel of wheat”—a foreshadowing of the Countercultural Revolution/Love Generation, when a purified ergot derivative (LYSERGIC ACID DI-ETHYLAMIDE, LSD) offered a similar experience. Indeed, the word lysergic means “dissolving ergot.”

In Islam, alcohol is forbidden, but medieval Islamic sects were formed to use HASHISH (a form of Cannabis sativa, MARIJUANA). It came into use in the Islamic Middle East only centuries after the Prophet Mohammed (lived about 570 to 632) and his followers founded the Moslem religion; hashish was allegedly used to offer a taste of the paradise to come.

In pre-Columbian America, drugs of a wide variety were utilized in religious rituals; the Native American Church still continues to use the HALLUCINOGENS peyote and mescaline (both derived from the small cactus Lophophora williamsii). Recent court decisions have protected and reaffirmed the right of this church to use these drugs in religious ceremonies. As Preston and Hammerschlag (1983) have noted, this use of hallucinogens is rigidly controlled—part of a transcendent experience, accompanied by rituals of purification, and not lending itself to use on a promiscuous basis.


The 1960s and 1970s were characterized by an extraordinary youth movement of baby-boomers with an intense interest in the cultic and the occult—and by a popularization of drug use within mainstream American society. Some of this interest was fueled by the philosophies and practices of Asia, especially Southeast Asia, where the Vietnam War was being fought; some was inspired by the Shangri-La nature of the lands of the Himalayas, where Buddhism was practiced in secluded monasteries and nirvana was sought. As the “Greening of America” proceeded through these two decades, mind-altering joined ALCOHOL and NICOTINE, becoming available on the street, and were no longer confined to the disenfranchised or marginal. There was an increasing juxtaposition of the so-called transcendent religious experience (the mind-expanding experience) with drug use that often became drug abuse.

This juxtaposition had been anticipated by some earlier poets, such as William Blake (1757-1827), Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), and Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891), by the illustrator Aubrey Beardsley (1872-1898), and by cult figures such as Aleister Crowley (born Edward Alexander Crowley, 1875-1947). By combining aspects of their own experimentation with hallucinogenic drugs with elements of Transcendental Meditation/Mahareshi (movements based on Buddhism) in their song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” (1967), the much adored singing group called the Beatles (the members born between 1940 and 1943, active as a group from 1960 to 1969) both mirrored and promoted the use of hallucinogens as providing a readily accessible transcendental experience—although in Buddhism the goal of all existence is the state of complete redemption (nirvana, a state achieved by righteous living, not by drugs). Unlike Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), who combined an interest in Vedanta (an orthodox system of Hindu philosophy) and the use of mescaline, the Beatles and their alleged mentor, the Mahareshi Mohesh Yogi, proclaimed the desirability of enlightening the masses rather than restricting enlightenment to a righteous educated elite.

In literary works of that era, such as Armistead Maupin’s Tales of the City (1978), characters routinely advocate and use mind-altering substances (especially marijuana) without any apparent appreciation of their darker potential, which was consistent with the general attitude toward TOBACCO and alcohol use at that time as well. In addition, there was no special appreciation that drug use, in and of itself, might encourage cult affiliation, yet this was very much the time of the rapid growth of cults among youth in the United States.

The relationship of such cults to drug use is paradoxical. Deutsch (1983) has noted that prolonged drug use may encourage this type of cult affiliation, and many cult groups offer themselves to the public and to vulnerable persons as quasi-therapeutic contexts where the person will be able to transcend the need for drugs. This aspect of cult-appeal turned thousands of lost and confused free spirits and flower-children into vacant-eyed smiling cultists who signed over to the cult all their worldly goods—to spend their days wandering the streets, airports, and bus or train stations, seeking donations for their cult by shaking bells and tambourines or by offering flowers to passing strangers. Rigorous training programs, called “brainwashing” by parents of the lost children and by other skeptics, were fashioned to strip cultists of free will and substitute nodding acquiescence.


One charismatic cult leader was the Reverend Jim Jones, leader of the People’s Temple. His claim of curing drug abuse was only one of the lures. After moving around the United States for a while, he brought his followers to an isolated spot in South America, where one of the former substance abusers mixed for them a massive batch of poisoned Kool-Aid for the cult’s final event—a basically unexplained mass suicide.


The People’s Temple was not unique—organizations such as Narcanon (that is, narcotics anonymous) have stated that their treatment of substance abusers reflects the dianetics-based teachings of L. Ron Hubbard (born Lafayette Ronald Hubbard, 1911-1986), an American science-fiction writer, whose Scientology movement expanded in the 1950s when he moved to England (he was subsequently banned from re-entering England in 1968). Scientology is a quasi-philosophical system that claims to improve mental and physical well-being as followers advance within the cult, by undertaking (and paying well for) a series of courses.


Intense religious commitment is a significant aspect of much of the twelve-step recovery movement. Accordingly, there is concern that this level of commitment to a program can lead to a kind of cult affiliation. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA), the oldest, most constructive, and most respected of the TWELVE-STEP programs, is not considered a cult. Still, Rebhun (1983) and many others have noted the danger that drug-treatment programs can turn into cults such as SYNANON. Synanon was not unique; the history of residential drug-treatment centers includes a number of authoritarian and hierarchical organizations. Recovering substance-abusers often find it very difficult to leave the protection of the THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITY to become independent members of mainstream society. Often times program staff really help individual members overcome drug problems and other problems. Yet other times, a false resolution of these problems comes through fusion with an authoritarian and charismatic leader who will ostensibly provide the continuity and structure for which the substance abuser hungers.


Drugs and other mind-altering substances have formed an integral part of some cultic/religious rituals from very ancient times. In the mid-to-late twentieth century, the structure provided by groups that mobilize intense religious or quasi-religious feelings has sometimes enabled vulnerable individuals to transcend their personal difficulties. However, the very intensity of the substance user’s object hunger may enable the transformation of otherwise viable or valuable organizations into cults or cultlike groups.

(SEE ALSO: Religion and drug use)


DEUTSCH, A. (1983). Psychiatric perspectives on an Eastern-style cult. In David A. Halperin (Ed.), Psychodynamic perspectives on religion, sect, and cult. Littleton, MA: James Wright-PSG.

PRESTON, R., & HAMMERSCHLAG, C. (1983). The Native American Church. In David A. Halperin (Ed.), Psychodynamic perspectives on religion, sect, and cult. Littleton, MA: James Wright-PSG.

REBHUN, J. (1983). The drug rehabilitation program: Cults in formation? In David A. Halperin (Ed.), Psychodynamic perspectives on religion, sect, and cult. Littleton, MA: James Wright-PSG.

REICH, C. A. (1970). The greening of America. New York: Random House.

WASSON, R. G., HOFMANN, A.& RUCK, C. A. P. (1978). The road to Eleusis: Unveiling the secret of the mysteries. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.



“Cults and Drug Use.” Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior. 2nd Ed. Ed. Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt. Macmillan-Thomson Gale, 2001. 2006. 19 Sep, 2010 <

School sends home 200 pupils in uniform crackdown!

In Business, Prime Time News on September 19, 2010 at 2:12 pm
Walkden High headteacher Elaine Hilton said parents and children had received fair warning of the hard-line approach
Walkden High headteacher Elaine Hilton said parents and children had received fair warning of the hard-line approach

Hundreds of pupils were sent home from just one school in a blitz over uniforms.

Around 200 children were turned away from Walkden High for failing to meet the tough dress code.

Teachers lined up children on the playground for an inspection before allowing them into lessons.

Headteacher Elaine Hilton said parents and children had received fair warning of the hard-line approach .

She said: “A letter outlining our approach to uniform concerns, together with a copy of the policy on standards of personal appearance and uniform, was posted to all parents.”

But one mum, whose 13-year-old girl was sent home, said: “My daughter wasn’t let in because of her shoes. They are plain black pumps with a tiny bit of a heel.

“Hundreds of children were being looked over and sent back home if they didn’t fit the bill. “There were kids were milling outside the gates and parents were fighting to get through to pick them up again. It was mayhem.”

In keeping with many schools, blazers and tie must be worn at all times and jewellery is banned.

In addition, children at the Salford school, which has 1,200 pupils, are ordered not have their ears pierced during the school term.

Mrs Hilton, who has been in charge the school for the last 11 years, said:

“The majority response from parents has been supportive and led to a swift resolution of most uniform concerns.

“Walkden High remains committed to ensuring that students adopt the highest standards in all aspects of school life”

She said she believed the majority of those sent away would now stick to the ‘business-like’ dress requirements.

The clothing blitz comes as thousands of students returned from their summer break for the new academic year.

The Birch Road school was rated ‘good’ by Ofsted two years ago. Staff and pupils a

School sends home 200 pupils in uniform crackdown – Manchester Evening News.

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Italian restaurant chain Carluccio’s, which has outlets in Manchester’s Spinningfields and the Trafford Centre, has agreed to a £90.3m takeover by Middle Eastern retail giant Landmark Group.

Dubai-headquartered Landmark has offered 142p a share in cash for Carluccio’s, which has 47 restaurants and food shops in the UK.

Carluccio’s – founded by celebrity chef Antonio Carluccio and his wife Priscilla in 1991 – said the deal “represents an attractive premium, in cash, at a time of macro-economic uncertainty”.

Landmark – which recently upped its stake in Carluccio’s to more than 5 per cent – already holds the franchise for Carluccio’s Middle Eastern operations and has opened three restaurants in Dubai, with another in the pipeline.

Shares in Carluccio’s leapt 44 per cent on news of the recommended offer.

Mukesh Jagtiani – the billionaire owner and chairman of Landmark – said Carluccio’s was a “strong business and brand”.

He added: “We are encouraged by Carluccio’s resilient performance during a turbulent economic period and are confident that Carluccio’s should benefit from more favourable macro trends in the future.”

Carluccio’s grew profits by 8% to £2.7 million in the six months to March 28 as its affordable dining appealed to consumers.

But Carluccio’s recently raised concerns over its outlook, warning on releasing interim results in May that Government austerity measures had cast a shadow over trading prospects.

The group has long been the centre of takeover speculation, with mooted suitors being private equity and Richard Caring – the owner of top London restaurants including celebrity haunt The Ivy.

David Bernstein, Carluccio’s senior independent director, said the Landmark takeover “represents an excellent opportunity for all those involved”.

“For our employees, it represents the opportunity to benefit from belonging to an international organisation of enlarged scale and breadth. Our customers will, however, see no change in our focus on quality, value, authenticity and the highest standards of service.”

Carluccio’s launched with the aim of offering quality, authentic Italian food at reasonable prices – its average spend is around £13 per customer.

Its founder has been a regular face on television cookery programmes, but is no longer involved in the day-to-day running of the restaurant business.

Garfunkels and Frankie & Benny’s owner The Restaurant Group today said it had halted a slide in sales after a hit from the volcanic ash crisis and slower trade during the World Cup.

The firm – which owns more than 40 restaurants in airports – was impacted by the air travel woes in the first six months of its year, while the World Cup added to pressure on the rest of its estate.

Interim like-for-like sales fell 0.5 per cent, but it said it had seen more resilient recent trading since then, with like-for-like sales flat in the 35 weeks of the year so far.

Cost cutting helped the group deliver a 13 per cent hike in underlying pre-tax profits to £24.6m in the 27 weeks to July 4, or up 10 per cent on a 26-week comparable basis.

This came despite the troubles at its airport eateries, where sales plummeted by around 90 per cent over the week-long ash cloud crisis, knocking more than £500,000 off earnings.

Its Frankie & Benny’s and Chiquito businesses were then impacted by weaker trade during the World Cup.

This left interim earnings below a year earlier at Chiquito, although Frankie & Benny’s grew sales and earnings in a “creditable” performance.

The Restaurant Group, which also owns the Brunning & Price pub restaurant chain, said it had maintained its programme of restaurant openings, with eight new outlets launched in the half-year and a further four since then.

It also aims to open another 20 to 25 by the end of its financial year.

The group is already eyeing a handful of new sites next year for the Garfunkel’s business, which performed “superbly” in the half-year thanks to significant growth in revenues and profits.

Shares rose more than 2 per cent.

The Restaurant Group owns 375 restaurants, including more than 50 concessions and 42 pub restaurants.

As more and more people travel either on holiday or on business there is an increasing demand for comfortable accommodation in most parts of the country. Bed and breakfasts satisfy this need and are ideally suited to locations where the demand could not support a hotel.

A bed and breakfast is the ultimate home business – your home is your business. Bed and breakfasts provide their customers with a service that’s half way between hotel and staying with a friend.

How much can you make running a bed and breakfast

There is a wide range of potential earnings in the industry. How much you can expect to make running a bed and breakfast will depend on your location, the market you target, the number of rooms you have available and your ability to market the business.

A typical Bed and Breakfast in London might be able to offer 10 rooms, achieving 90% occupancy and averaging £40 per night per room, thus generating a turnover of £131,400 per year. However the size of the bed and breakfast and the high occupancy will probably mean that staff are required to help run it and the overall profit achieved is only around 10% or £13,140.

On the other hand a sleepy country bed and breakfast in a summer tourist location might have 5 rooms achieving 50% occupancy and averaging £100 per night per room, thus generating a turnover of £91,250 but due to lower overheads such a bed and breakfast might be able to achieve around 30% profit margin or £27,375 per year.

On top of that, if you’ve started the bed and breakfast from scratch, or built a failing bed and breakfast back up, then when you decide to sell the business you should be able to realise a sizeable capital gain, achieving a premium over the value of the property alone. So a property that originally cost you £400,000 on which you spent £50,000 converting it to a bed and breakfast might sell a few years later for around £800,000 taking into account a growth in house prices and a premium for the business.

How much does it cost to start a bed and breakfast

The cost of starting a bed and breakfast business will vary hugely ranging from a few thousand pounds if you’re going to covert your current home (and your home is suitable), to over a million pounds if you’re looking for a larger property in a premium location.

Starting a bed and breakfast from scratch will involve buying a suitable property which is likely to cost anywhere from a few hundred thousand to over a million pounds depending in the size and location.

As well as purchasing the property you may need to invest in adapting it, fitting it out and marketing the business. All of which will required a budget of anywhere from a few thousand pounds to tens of thousands of pounds depending on the level of work that needs to be done.

As an alternate option you can buy a bed and breakfast that is already trading in which case your start-up costs will be the cost of buying the business and financing the purchase.

How to start a bed and breakfast business

Once you’ve made the decision to become a bed and breakfast owner your next step is to decide whether you are going to buy an existing bed and breakfast – you’ll need more cash, but it already has an income – or start your own bed and breakfast from scratch. I’ll deal with buying a bed and breakfast later in this article so first lets look at the steps involved in starting a bed and breakfast business.

Firstly you’ll need to decide what type of bed and breakfast you would like to start. Be that the simple boarding house catering to travelling businessmen, the boutique weekend getaway or something in between. Then be clear about your goals, is this a full time business to support your family or a business you’re running to provide supplemental income during your retirement? Your goals will impact the market you should be aiming for and you’ll need to focus on one particular market to succeed. Trying to be all things to all people is likely to be a costly mistake and you’ll probably do everything badly rather than one thing well. There is a balance to be struck on the size of your bed and breakfast, the bigger it is the more potential income, however with that comes more work which may mean employing people which introduces more overheads and the bureaucracy of having employees.

Once you’ve chosen your market you’ll then need to find a suitable property in a suitable location. As with opening a shop, one of the keys to starting a successful bed and breakfast is the location. If you’re going to aim at the holiday market then you need to be in or near a holiday destination, if you’re aiming at business travellers then being near to local business districts and good road and rail connections will be essential.

It’s then worth spending some time on market research and competitor analysis – is there enough demand to support another bed and breakfast in that location and can you offer something that competes with the existing businesses.

When it comes to finding a property you’ll need to factor in how many bedrooms you’d like to use for the business and how many rooms you’d like to maintain as a family home. When looking for a property you might find some bargains in old nursing homes or disused pubs. When considering residential property do keep in mind that changing the use of a residential property to a bed and breakfast will require planning permission so you’d be well advised to talk to the local planning authority and find out if it’s going to be possible to obtain the relevant planning permissions before you buy the property. Then speak to them again once you own the property to obtain the relevant planning permissions.

When it comes to buying a bed and breakfast or buying a property to convert into a bed and breakfast you’ll need to speak to specialist finance brokers – an ordinary high street mortgage is unlike to cover it. As such you’ll need to present a business plan explaining how you’re going to operate the business, why it’s a good investment and what experience you have that will enable you to make it a success. Expect the costs of purchasing the property and arranging finance to be around 5% of the cost of the property.

Once you’ve brought a suitable property for your bed and breakfast you should also talk to the local environmental health officers and ensure that you comply with the relevant rules and regulations. In particular they will want to ensure that your kitchen is up to scratch. You should also book yourself on a food hygiene course. The Pink Booklet provides full guidance to the legal issues you need to be familiar with as an accommodation provider.

Whilst you’re getting the building and legalities sorted be sure to spend some time putting in place a marketing plan and the systems and processes you’ll need to keep your marketing plan in action, take and manage bookings and manage the smooth running of your bed and breakfast.

In particular sort out your terms and conditions and make sure that your booking process will ensure that guests are aware of them. Make sure you have all the relevant insurances in place – speak to a good insurance broker to find out what is on offer.

Then set a date for opening and make sure you’re able to hit it.

Writing a business plan for a bed and breakfast

Due to the capital intensive nature of a bed and breakfast, I strongly suggest you write a proper business plan before spending a single penny on starting a bed a breakfast.

When preparing the financial sections of your business plan try to ensure that your break even point is no more than 40% occupancy, as at best you’ll achieve only around 75% occupancy and you need some margin to generate a profit. Equally make sure you’ve factored into your financial plans sufficient working capital to see you through the first year as building a customer list and a marketing process can take time. For the same reason you should plan to keep costs low during the early years by doing a lot of the work yourself and if possible keep a part-time job on the go too.

Buying a bed and breakfast

Buying a bed and breakfast allows you to enter the bed and breakfast business without having to go through the hardship of starting from scratch. On the other hand you’ll pay a premium to cover the hard work and investment that someone else has already put it.

When it comes to looking for a bed and breakfast for sale, as web as looking on the business for sale websites consider approaching the bed and breakfasts in the area that you wish to buy one and asking them if they are interested in selling. There’s a good chance you’ll find one that is and you may well be able to negotiate a lower price with a business transfer agent’s commission to cover or the over-inflated prices they advise their clients to ask for. If you need help determining a value for a bed and breakfast you’re buying then please read the post How To Value A Small Business.

Marketing a bed and breakfast

The success of a bed and breakfast rest heavily on it’s ability to attract repeat custom. There are therefore two areas you need to focus your marketing on:

  1. Winning new customers.
  2. Retaining existing customers.

Let’s look at each in turn.

Winning new customers for your bed and breakfast

Unless you’re going to create something more than a bed and breakfast, i.e. you’re going to offer so sort of packaged holiday such a guided walks, finding new customers for your bed and breakfast will be all about making it easy for customers to find out about your bed and breakfast. Basically new customers aren’t going to be looking for you by name, instead they’re going to be looking for ‘a bed and breakfast in central Bath’ and the like. Your job then is to indentify all the possible places that a customer could look in order to satisfy their requirement and make sure that your bed and breakfast is listed there. Then once listed make sure you stand out.

So where will new customers look? Well online using search engines and directories such as, and offline via: the tourist board, printed bed and breakfast directories and guidebooks.

Network with the local community and local businesses can help too. Whilst few of them are likely to need a bed and breakfast near their own home, they are likely to be asked to suggest places to stay near them so could become a good source of referrals. You could therefore consider joining some of the local networking organisations.

Also consider membership of local and national tourist associations include things like the ramblers association and the AA guidebooks – talk to other local bed and breakfast owners about what works for them and network with them to help each other by providing referrals when you/they are full.

Always track what works – find out from every guest how they heard about you and measure the ROI of each bit of marketing.

Retaining your bed and breakfast’s existing customers

Repeat business is a key driver of success in the bed and breakfast industry. There are two aspects of repeat business:

  1. Making customers want to return, the secret to this is getting the basics right:
    • good comfortable beds
    • a high level of cleanliness
    • excellent breakfast
    • a warm welcoming attitude
  2. Making sure customers remember you and can find you again. Printed leaflets and business cards as will creating a strong brand and continually marketing yourself to past customers.

Running a bed and breakfast business

Once up and running your main costs will be breakfast, marketing and finance. Managing these costs will be important if you want to succeed. And no matter how well you’re doing never stop marketing. It’s better to have too much business than too little and if you have too much business you can always up your price a little until the demand levels off. You might also like to consider variable pricing can be profitable – raise prices at peak times and lower them in the offseason.

Once you’re up and running and have gained a few years worth of experience, you can use the free time in the afternoons and evenings to expand the business by offering training to other would-be bed and breakfast owners.

Useful books on starting a bed and breakfast

Branching Into Sales: To Research or Not!

In Business, The Master Class, To Deal or Not on September 18, 2010 at 3:42 pm

Sales and Marketing Questionnaire

1) Maslow argues that there is a ‘Hierarchical System’ that is quintessentially a characteristic that underpins how various social cultural groups are persuaded to buy one product over another regardless of price or demographics. Therefore, can you answer these questions after first doing a little bit of research to help you to address them both quantitatively as well as qualitatively too?

1.1 What are the hierarchical groups that Maslow is referring to?

1.2 How do cultural demographics help telemarketing [sales] personnel to clearly define which groups are more than likely to purchase the products that they are selling to them?

1.3 What is meant by egoism?

1.4 How does egoism help to protect us from the being inundated with telesales calls?

1.5 What is the “Law of Scarcity?”

1.6 How could you use this principle with devastating effect?

1.7 How many people live in Wellingborough?

1.8 What are the demographical profiles of those people in Wellingborough?

1.9 What was the average household spending for Wellingborough in 1999?

1.10 Michael Argyle, [Late Professor Emeritus: Social Sciences] argues that our psychological volition is constantly being subjugated to external peer pressure. What does this statement mean in reality for telesales personnel?

1.11 How do the media influence each demographical groups buying behaviour based upon the psychological paradigm shifting processes?

1.12 What is meant by the “Tunnelling” sales process?

1.13 How can its usage be applied to:

a. Class A type buyers as opposed to Class E buyers?

b. Classes A to E have different social-psychological intrinsic/extrinsic decision buying processes. Can you define in your own words how you would tackle this particular anomaly? Where would you gather your research data to extrapolate the reasons for and against such an anomaly in directing your sales performance?

c. What is the average spending criteria; under the present “Credit crunch” that is, of demographical classes C – E?

eDigitalResearch Team Takes A Step Up

Written by eDigital Research
Leading market research specialist, eDigitalResearch is continuing to celebrate what looks set to become another record year for the company,
after being appointed to work with a succession of new clients.

The addition of new clients has led to a series of eight internal promotions.Lacey Tudur and Lucy Russell advance to research managers; Jenny Gidley and Graham Larkin have both been promoted to senior research analysts; and Michael Garland and Thomas Sondej will be taking on the roles of research analysts.

Elsewhere Ed Dick has been promoted to marketing executive and Hannah Lewis has progressed to the research department.

Founding Director Michelle Fuller explains that,

“We’ve worked hard to achieve business success and over the past ten years. Witnessing the fundamental growth of the Internet and subsequent online culture and in turn migrating traditional research methodologies online has enabled us to supply top UK brands with innovative digital research, capable of providing authentic and actionable feedback.

As our insight ingenuity and technological advances progress, we are continuing to provide clients with superior and pioneering methodologies.
Part of our unique offering is largely due to the ability, expertise and commitment of eDigitalResearch employees, without whom we would not have been able to achieve all we have set out to accomplish in the past several months.”

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