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The Epistles of Seneca

In Readers Choice on November 26, 2010 at 5:05 pm

 

Roman Emperor and Stoic, the author of Meditations in twelve books. Its first printing appeared in English in 1634. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius the celebrated Pax Romana collapsed – perhaps this made the emperor the most forbearing of all Stoics. An important feature of the philosophy was that everything will recur: the whole universe becomes fire and then repeats itself.

Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things which exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the contexture of the web. (from The Meditations)

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was born in Rome. He came from an aristocratic family long established in Spain. His father was Annius Verus. When only a small child, he caught the attention of the Emperor Hadrian (r. 117-138) – a pedophile and his fellow countryman. He was appointed by the Emperor to priesthood in the year 129, and Hadrian also supervised his education, which was entrusted to the best professors of literature, rhetoric and philosophy of the time. His letters to one of the teachers, Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100 – 170), the foremost orator of his day, were found by Cardinal Mai in 1815.

Marcus Aurelius discovered Stoicism by the time he was 11 and from his early twenties he deserted his other studies for philosophy. The Emperor Antoninus Pius, who succeeded Hadrian, adopted Marcus Aurelius as his son in 138. “He never bathed at odd hours,” Marcus Aurelius said of him in Meditations, “or took a passion for building; never set up for a table connoisseur, and expert on textures and tints, or an authority on good looks… One might fairly apply to him what is recorded of Socrates, that he could either enjoy or leave things which most people find themselves too weak to abstain from, and too self-indulgent to enjoy.” Antoninus Pius treated Aurelius as a confidant and helper throughout his reign; Marcus Aurelius also married his daughter, Faustina, in 139. He was admitted to the Senate, and then twice the consulship. In 147 he shared tribunician power with Antoninus. During this time he began composition of his Meditations, which he wrote in Greek in army camps. Thus Book I is headed ‘This among the Quadi on the Gran’, and Book II ‘Written at Carnuntum’.

At the age of 40, in 161 Marcus Aurelius ascended the throne and shared his imperial power with his adopted brother Lucius Aurelius Verus. Useless and lazy, Verus was regarded as a kind of junior emperor; he died in 169. After Verus’s death he ruled alone, until he admitted his own son, Commodus, to full participation in the government in 177.

As an emperor Marcus Aurelius was conservative and just by Roman standards. He was beset by internal disturbances – famine, earthquakes, fires, and plague – and by the external threat posed by the Germans in the north and the Parthians in the east. However, Sir Edward Gobbon has praised the period of ‘Five Good Emperors‘ – Narva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius – of which Marcus’ own life spanned almost three-quarters: “If a man were called to fix the period in the history of the world during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous, he would, without hesitation, name that which elapsed from the death of Domitian to the accession of Commodus.”

Toward the end of his reign, in 175, Marcus Aurelius was faced with a revolt by Avidius Cassius, the governor of Syria, who perhaps believed rumors that the Emperor had died. His head was sent to Marcus Aurelius. According to some sources, Faustina, Marcus’ wife, may have been involved in this conspiracy. An epidemic of plague followed Cassius’s army from the East. Year after year Aurelius tried to push barbarians back but witnessed the gradual crumbling of the Roman frontiers. In these times of disasters, he turned more and more to the study of Stoic philosophy.

The Latin writings of Marcus Aurelius, letters to a teacher, Fronto, are not interesting, but the “Writings to Himself”, called Meditations, are remarkable. They are personal reflections and aphorisms, written for his own edification during a long career of public service, after marching or battle in the remote Danube. Meditations are valuable primarily as a personal document, what it is to be a Stoic. His opinions in central philosophical questions are very much similar to Epictetus’s (c. 55-135 AD) teachings. Epictetus’s two basic principles were: Endure and Abstain. He stressed that inner freedom is to be attained through submission to providence, and rigorous detachment from everything not in our power.

He who fears death either fears the loss of sensation or a different kind of sensation. But if thou shalt have no sensation, neither wilt thou feel any harm; and if thou shalt acquire another kind of sensation, thou wilt be a different kind of living being and thou wilt not cease to live. (from The Meditations)

Marcus Aurelius’s melancholic writings reveal that the public duties depressed him and he wanted to retire to live a simple country life. After his death in Vindobona (now Vienna, Austria) on March 17, 180 the emperor’s only son Commodus became Emperor and turned out to be one of the worst rulers. Marcus Aurelius’s reputation is shadowed by his persecution of Christians. A devout adherent of the Roman religion, Marcus Aurelius considered the Christians fanatics, who don’t die with stoic dignity. “How lovely the soul that is prepared – when its hour comes to slough off this flesh – for extinctions, dispersion, or survival! But this readiness should result from a personal decision, not from sheer contrariness like the Christians…” Probably Marcus Aurelius knew very little about Christian beliefs. The fierce cruelty, with which the persecution was carried out in Gaul, was not consistent with his writings. However, Stoics had a profound influence upon both Neoplatonism and Christianity. Besides Meditations Aurelius left behind among others two Roman monuments, the column which commemorates his victories in the Marcomannic Wars and the equestrian statue on the Capitol.

Stoicism, named after the Stoa Poikile, a hall in Athens where it was first formulated around 300 BC by Zeno of Citium. Zeno’s all writings are lost. The philosophy was developed by Cleanthes (331-232) and Chrysippus (280-207), who organized it into a system. Marcus Aurelius based his views in part on the later version, which was developed by the freed slave Epictetus (55-135). The Stoics were the first thoroughgoing pantheists: God is the universe, the universe is God. The wise and virtuous learns one’s place in the scheme. According to Stoic Ethics, the goal of human existence is to live consistently with Nature, which means “consistently with Reason”.

Meditations, or Writings to Himself (Ta eis heauton). First printed in 1559 in Zurich by Andreas Gesner with a Latin translation by William Xylander. Thereafter it has enjoyed a wide readership from poets to statesmen. Meditations contains 12 books, but while Book I offers a clear organization and unity, the others do not. Marcus Aurelius worked on his philosophical summary or pensées during the last years of his life while on campaign along the marshlands of the Danube. Among the central themes is man’s fate to die and be forgotten. “What should be valued?”, he asks, but sees not the answer in the rewards of glory. Aurelius had wanted to be untouched by passion, and generous by nature rather than by calculation. He had a firm sense of responsibility, but was perhaps more attracted to the Stoic ideal of the perfect man. When according to Stoicism humanity’s whole duty was to discover how it might live in harmony with the order of Nature, Aurelius hoped sadly that it could also apply to him: “Even in a palace life may be lived well.”

For further reading: Marcus Aurelius: His Life and His Works by A.S.L. Farquharson (1951); Marcus Aurelius by Anthony Birley (1987, original edition 1966); The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius by R.B. Rutheford (1989); The Therapy of Desire by Martha C. Nussbaum (1994); The Roman Empire in Transition by Michael Grant (1994) – Note: in some sources Marcus Aurelius’s birth date is April 16, 121 (Lexicon der Weltliteratur, ed. by Gero von Wilpert, 1988).

 

Selected works:

  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman emperour, His Meditations Concerning Himself, 1635 (notes by Meric Casaubon)
  • The Emperor Marcus Antoninus, His Conversation with Himself, 1701
  • The Thoughts of the Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, 1862 (tr. by George Long)
  • Opera Inedits cum Epistulis Item Ineditis Antonni Pii M Aurelii L Veri et Appiani nec non Aliorum Veterum, 1815 – The Correspondence of Marcus Cornelius Fronto with Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Lucius Verus, Antoninus Pius, and Various Friends (ed. C.R. Haines, 1920)
  • The Communings with Himself by Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 1916 (tr. by Charkes S. Haines)
  • The Meditations of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, I-II, 1944 (2nd ed. 1952, ed. by A.S.L. Farquharson)
  • Marcus Aurelius: Ad se ipsum libri XII, 1979 (ed. by J. Dalfen)
  • The Emperors Handbook: A New Translation of The Meditations, 2002 (tr. by David Hicks, C. Scot Hicks)
  • Meditations, 2002 (tr. and introduction by Gregory Hays)
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In Readers Choice on November 7, 2010 at 3:38 pm

Roma rights campaigner jailed for £2.9m benefits scam

Lavinia  Olmazu
Lavinia Olmazu admitted a fraud charge in July

A woman who helped more than 170 Romanians illegally claim £2.9m in benefits has been jailed for two years and three months.

Lavinia Olmazu, a leading campaigner for the rights of Roma (Gypsies), helped mastermind the scam involving 172 members of the Romanian community.

Olmazu, of north-east London, gained access to them through her work with Haringey and Waltham Forest councils.

The 31-year-old admitted a fraud charge at Southwark Crown Court in July.

As well as working as an outreach worker with the councils, the university graduate was involved with the Big Issue.

She set up companies with her boyfriend to help facilitate the frauds they carried out as part of a gang.

‘Abused position’


“You have now lost your reputation by involving yourself in this fraud”

End Quote Judge Deborah Taylor

Sentencing her, Judge Deborah Taylor told Olmazu, of Woodford Green, her role in the fraud was “made easier” by her involvement with the local authorities and charities which granted her access to people within the Roma community.

She added: “You identified individuals who wished to be involved in this scheme and in doing so, abused your position with a number of charities.

“You were a previously well-respected woman working in human rights. You have now lost your reputation by involving yourself in this fraud.”

Immigrants from Romania are not entitled to a National Insurance number, and therefore a number of benefits, unless they can prove to the authorities they have been employed.

The court heard Olmazu and her partner, unemployed Alin Enachi, would offer false documents for money to the migrants purporting to be from their employers, and also provided them with fake references.

Alin Enachi
Olmazu’s partner Alin Enachi was also jailed

Migrants would pay in cash for help with their applications before going on to receive benefits, such as child tax credits, working tax credits and child benefit, if their applications were successful.

Olmazu, who has an 11-year-old son, admitted one count of conspiracy to supply articles for use in fraud between November 2007 and August 2009.

Enachi, 30, also of Woodford Green, was jailed for two years and eight months after pleading guilty to one count of conspiracy to supply articles for use in fraud between November 2007 and August 2009.

Olmazu and Enachi were part of a gang of eight, all of whom have now been sentenced for their part in the fraud.

A police spokesman said even though £2.9m had been claimed illegally, the scam would have defrauded the UK of more than £10m if the authorities had not intervened.

A confiscation hearing will be held at a later date, but the court heard £40,000 had passed through Enachi’s account.

Det Con Melanie Groves, from the Metropolitan Police, said: “This is a clear case of Roma families who wished to improve their lives but were prevented from doing so by being exploited by their own people.”

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The One Percent


The One Percent is a 2006 documentary about the growing wealth gap between America‘s wealthy elite and the citizenry on the whole. It was created byJamie Johnson, heir to the Johnson & Johnson fortune, and produced by Jamie Johnson and Nick Kurzon. The film’s title refers to the top one percent of Americans in terms of wealth, who controlled 38% of the nation’s wealth in 2001.[1]

The film premiered on April 29, 2006, at the Tribeca Film Festival. It was reported to have been purchased by HBO and a revised version of the film, substantially re-edited and incorporating footage shot since the 2006 festival screening, premiered on Thursday, February 21, 2008 at 6:30pm ET/PT on HBO’s Cinemax.

It was stated in the Page Six column of the New York Post that Warren Buffett had written a letter to Nicole Buffett, daughter of his son Peter’s ex-wife from another marriage. In response to her participation in the film, distancing himself from her, he wrote “I have not emotionally or legally adopted you as a grandchild, nor have the rest of my family adopted you as a niece or a cousin.”[2]

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Brixton riot:

Report blames racial tension



Last April’s riots in Brixton, south London were caused by serious social and economic problems affecting Britain’s inner cities, a report has said Lord Scarman‘s inquiry into what he called the worst outbreak of disorder in the UK this century also blamed “racial disadvantage that is a fact of British life”. The report criticised police and the government, but it said there was no excuse for the violence and praised officers for their conduct during the disorder. Hostile crowd. The investigation found the rioting was caused by a spontaneous crowd reaction to police action – rightly or wrongly believed to be harassment of black people – and had not been planned.

On the night of 10 April two police officers were attempting to help a black youth who was bleeding from a suspected stab wound when they were approached by a hostile crowd.

The local community was already aggravated by “Operation Swamp” – during which large numbers of black youths were stopped and searched – and the confrontation quickly escalated.

Over 300 people were injured, 83 premises and 23 vehicles were damaged during the disturbances, at an estimated cost of £7.5m.

Community policing

Lord Scarman called for a new emphasis on community policing and said more people from ethnic minorities should be recruited to the force.

He also advised the government to end racial disadvantage and tackle the disproportionately high level of unemployment among young black men – as high as 50% in Brixton.

The report has been widely welcomed by senior policeman and government ministers.

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News From Ireland

Nine people have been arrested after a massive garda operation targeted suspected drug gangs.

The operation aimed to disrupt organised crime in Sheriff Street and Oriel Street in Dublin, while raids were also carried out in Cork, Wexford, Kildare and Cavan.

Nine men were arrested and were taken in for questioning at several garda stations across the country. The detained men include a 20-year-old in Cork and a 48-year-old in Enniscorthy, while three men aged 17, 23 and 61, were also arrested.

Meanwhile, a 23-year-old and a 41-year-old were detained at Bridewell Station, and a 40-year-old in Mountjoy and a 20-year-old in Whitehall were also held.

A garda spokesman said the raids were co-ordinated from Store Street Garda Station as part of an ongoing intelligence-led investigation into drug trafficking.

Up to 300 gardai were drafted in for the massive crackdown to search homes, business premises and other properties at 33 locations.

Seven of the suspects were being held under tough anti-gang laws passed last year. They were arrested on suspicion of participation and contribution to activities intended to enhance the ability of a criminal organisation.

A number of garda divisions were involved in the operation, including the Criminal Assets Bureau, the armed Emergency Response Unit, the Organised Crime Unit, Air Support Unit, dog handlers and the riot squad.

It is understood the operation was aimed at the gang’s drug distribution network.

The raids targeted those suspected of moving the drugs hauls around the country to dealers.

The crime gang is involved in heroin, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy trafficking.

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भारत दौरे पर आए अमेरिकी राष्‍ट्रपति बराक हुसैन ओबामा ने संसद के दोनों सदनों के प्रति‍निधियों को संबोधित करते हुए सबसे पहले तो धन्‍यवाद दिया और कहा, ‘मैं दुनिया के सबसे पुराने लोकतंत्र की ओर से आप सबके लिए शुभकामनाएं लाया हूं.’ उन्‍होंने कहा कि भारत में ब‍हुत प्रगति हुई है.

ओबामा की यात्रा के पहले दिन की झलकियां

ओबामा ने कहा कि भारत के लोगों द्वारा मुझे और मेरी पत्‍नी को बहुत सम्‍मान दिया गया इसके लिए बहुत धन्‍यवाद. ओबामा ने यहां तक कि हिन्‍दी में भी ‘बहुत धन्‍यवाद’ कहा. उन्‍होंने कहा, ‘मैं अमेरिका का कोई पहला राष्‍ट्रपति नहीं हूं जो यहां भाषण दे रहा हूं, लेकिन यह अमेरिका से बाहर की मेरी सबसे लंबी यात्रा है.’

दूसरे दिन की झलकियां

उन्‍होंने कहा कि भारत बड़ी उभरती ताकत नहीं है बल्कि वह बड़ी ताकत बन चुका है. ओबामा ने भारत और अमेरिका के संबंधों को मूल्‍य आधारित बताते हुए कहा, ‘मैं भारत के मूल्‍यों का सम्‍मान करता हूं. आपकी सभ्‍यता बहुत पुरानी है ओर मैं इसका सम्‍मान करता हूं. 1 अरब भारतीयों को संबोधित करना गर्व की बात है.’

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“Villarán desconoce o repite argumentos de la dirigencia del Sutep”

En entrevista con El Comercio, el primer ministro José Antonio Chang también sostiene que hay una ambigüedad en decir si Patria Roja o el Sutep estarán en el manejo educativo

Lunes 08 de noviembre de 2010 – 07:45 am
Imagen

Por Mariella Balbi

¿Podrá hacer un buen ‘premierato’ teniendo dos cargos (presidente del Consejo de Ministros y ministro de Educación)? Ambos requieren trabajo.
Hay estilos y estilos. El ‘premierato’ es la capacidad de coordinar las acciones de los diferentes ministerios en temas transversales a ellos. Yo siempre he creído que cada ministro debe asumir su responsabilidad al frente de su cartera. El presidente del Consejo de Ministros no tiene que cargarse los problemas de un sector. Solo en los casos en que haya que dirimir en una posición de Estado entre tres, cuatro sectores, el primer ministro puede intervenir. Cuando tuvimos los conflictos con el sindicato de profesores en mi sector yo no incomodé al presidente del Consejo de Ministros de entonces ni al presidente Alan García ni a nadie.

Pero su agenda para llena. Confiep, por ejemplo, está buscando una cita con usted y le es difícil.
No he recibido ninguna solicitud formal al respecto y coincido en algunas reuniones con dirigentes empresariales. No me han dicho nada.

¿Diría que es un primer ministro mudo o callado?
No, hay que hablar en la oportunidad necesaria. Mi estilo es más de accionar y hacer cosas que estar en los medios de comunicación.

Probablemente permanecerá en el cargo hasta el final del Gobierno. ¿En qué centrará su gestión?
Este es un gabinete de 10 meses. Tenemos que garantizar al país un proceso electoral transparente, en el cual el Gobierno mantenga una actitud de absoluta neutralidad.

¿Incluso con la publicidad estatal?
Absolutamente. He conversado con todos los ministros sobre la necesaria neutralidad. Habrá otra tónica para difundir las obras, ya no será un ‘recordaris’ de todo lo que estamos haciendo. En los próximos 15 días ofreceremos un planteamiento. También hay que dejar un país estable económicamente, sin bombas de tiempo. Además, vamos a fortalecer todo lo relacionado a la seguridad ciudadana.

La Defensoría del Pueblo ha mostrado que las comisarías están desvencijadas.
El ministro del Interior, Fernando Barrios, es una persona ejecutiva. Hará una inmediata intervención para mejorar las comisarías por un monto de 33 millones de soles. Además, ya entró en licitación el plan para unificar las redes de comunicación en la policía.

Eso se lo he escuchado a varios ministros del Interior.
Seguramente, pero a fin de año la comunicación será integrada.

La incapacidad de gasto del Ministerio del Interior es constante. ¿Los sucesivos ministros del Interior no han sido buenos gestores?
Entiendo que hubo fallas, mucha lentitud o procesos engorrosos. El presidente García nos reunió y solicitó disminuir los procedimientos, sin afectar la transparencia. Es posible que haya habido falta de experiencia en el manejo administrativo. Estoy seguro de que el ministro Barrios mejorará el tema de la seguridad ciudadana. Otro punto es la lucha contra la corrupción. Hemos fortalecido el Plan Nacional Anticorrupción. Anteayer se destinaron 3’755.954 de soles para agilizar la aplicación del Código Procesal Penal en lo que son delitos de corrupción de funcionarios. Hemos presentado proyectos de ley para sancionar de modo definitivo a los funcionarios que cometan actos de corrupción para que no vuelvan al sector público. El Congreso debe aprobarlo. Esas son básicamente las líneas de acción; también el fortalecimiento de algunas reformas importantes: la educativa, la descentralización y la dotación de servicios básicos. Se trata de consolidar estos avances y que puedan ser continuados por el siguiente gobierno.

¿Y de paso se ayuda a la candidata aprista (Mercedes Aráoz)?
No, de ninguna manera. Tenemos que seguir trabajando, no podemos paralizar las obras.

Está por aprobarse el presupuesto. ¿El anunciado incremento de sueldos a las Fuerzas Armadas y policiales implica necesariamente eliminar la cédula viva en este sector?
El presupuesto debe mantener los indicadores macroeconómicos que nos han dado reconocimiento internacional. En el tema puntual de las FF.AA. y policiales, la posición del Gobierno es que la cédula viva no debe continuar. Es un régimen exclusivo para ellos y no debería haber regímenes de excepción. Hemos planteado una mejora de remuneraciones.

Se critica que se recortaron 800 millones de soles del presupuesto del sector Defensa para destinar la cantidad a las remuneraciones.
No es tan así. No hay recortes, sino redistribución de los recursos de Defensa por 200 millones de soles. El resto sale de la caja fiscal.

¿Si el Congreso no anula la cédula viva no hay aumentos para Defensa e Interior?
Ese es el planteamiento del Gobierno. Si hasta el 15 de noviembre surge una fórmula que, sin romper el equilibrio fiscal, pueda aumentar sueldos y mantener la cédula viva, la estudiaríamos. Pero no existe. Si el Congreso no corta la cédula viva, no se puede aumentar sueldos al sector Defensa e Interior porque el presupuesto no estaría equilibrado.

Un gran punto de conflicto, ¿no?
Es un conflicto, sí, pero los ministros de Defensa, Interior y Economía se reunieron con la Comisión de Presupuesto para buscar una solución.

EL SECTOR EDUCACIÓN
Hablemos de su gestión como ministro de Educación. Usted dijo que la alcaldesa Susana Villarán ignora la Ley de Carrera Pública Magisterial (LCPM).
Yo he dicho que ella demuestra un total desconocimiento de la LCPM, o está muy mal informada. Las frases que repite son las mismas que utilizó el Sutep para desprestigiar la LCPM. Ella dijo que la evaluación de los maestros es solo una prueba objetiva de marcado, en la cual se pregunta por Napoleón y Elba. Para un profesor de historia universal esto sería básico. No menciona que, adicionalmente al examen de conocimiento, los profesores son sometidos a evaluaciones de tecnologías de la información, de idiomas y están obligados a dar una clase magistral, de su desempeño en el aula. El Sutep sabe que es así, pero lo omite porque quiere desacreditar la LCPM. Por eso digo que la señora Villarán o desconoce o repite los mismos argumentos de la dirigencia del Sutep. Yo, encantado, estoy a su disposición para informarle cómo es la evaluación.

¿Ya ha tenido un acercamiento con la alcaldesa Villarán? ¿La llamará?
No. En el momento que ella considere me podrá llamar. Entiendo que ahora está en su proceso de transferencias; entonces, yo la dejo tranquila.

El ministro del Interior sí la llamó.
Seguramente, es una política de él, por la necesidad de ver lo de la seguridad ciudadana.

¿No hay una hostilidad de su ministerio para transferir las funciones de Educación a la región Lima Metropolitana?
Pero yo no tengo ninguna hostilidad. Sí tengo que desmentir cosas que se dicen. Como la señora Villarán tiene a su alrededor a un grupo vinculado a la dirigencia del Sutep no tengo que aceptar que se digan cosas que no son ciertas de la LCPM.

Ella dijo que el manejo de la Educación en su región no estará en manos del Sutep sino a su cargo y de asesores como Gloria Helfer y Manuel Iguíñiz, que no están vinculados al Sutep, ¿no?
Habría que ver qué cosa hicieron cuando fueron autoridades frente al Sutep. Desconozco sus gestiones mayormente. No tengo mayor información de acciones concretas de sus gestiones.

El desempeño en el aula no tiene un gran peso en el conjunto de la evaluación. El criterio de su ministerio es que los directores, que la califican, pueden ser subjetivos. ¿No sería bueno darle más puntaje?
También participan los padres de familia. Es discutible. Pesa 15, pero hay muchas evaluaciones: la manera como usan las tecnologías de la información en el aula, los idiomas. Si compara tiene un peso importante. La que tiene más peso es la prueba de conocimiento, 40%.

¿Por qué no variar eso?
Se ha evaluado bastante. Se le puede decir a un profesor mañana es tu evaluación de desempeño y puede preparar la clase extraordinariamente. Pero no sabemos si eso fue producto de la presión del examen y no es una constante. No se puede negar que sí hay evaluación en el aula.

El Consejo Nacional de Educación afirma que se debe revisar la evaluación.
No, no, quien dice eso es la señora Villarán y algunos miembros afines a su pensamiento, como el señor César Barrera Bazán, Edmundo Murrugarra o discrepantes del gobierno como León Trahtemberg. Los hemos incorporado para escuchar sus voces. No hay ningún documento del consejo que diga lo que usted afirma. Es fácil criticar, pero cuando hay que evaluar a 350 mil maestros, no se puede dar a todos una hora de desempeño en el aula. Son 350 mil horas. Es mejor hacer una selección de conocimientos y luego ver el desempeño.

El Sutep dice que no se evalúa por especialidad y que el examen es memorístico.
No. La primera evaluación es de comprensión de lectura, razonamiento lógico-matemático, conocimientos pedagógicos y de la especialidad (primaria, secundaria o inicial). Si un profesor no puede comprender lo que lee, cómo va a enseñar. Luego se le evalúa en su especialidad. Al final de este gobierno tendremos 90 mil maestros en la carrera pública magisterial y 220 mil que están en la antigua ley del profesorado.

¿Ha leído el programa municipal de Fuerza Social?
Algunos temas son repetitivos del mensaje del Sutep. Lamentablemente, hasta los términos son iguales a algunos de sus panfletos. Hay una ambigüedad en decir si Patria Roja o el Sutep estarán en el manejo educativo. El Sutep le reclama que ellos han trabajado en conjunto la política educativa. Nuestro temor es que las mejoras en la evaluación de los maestros retrocedan…

¿Cómo? Si la evaluación es potestad del Ministerio de Educación.
Podrían matar la meritocracia, los incentivos por rendimiento, homologando a todos con los sueldos de los mejores maestros. Quien estudia y quienes no ganan igual. La descentralización ha hecho que a los directores de UGEL los nombre la región. Ellos son los responsables de implementar las políticas nacionales. Si estos boicotean los procesos de selección en Lima, como ocurrió en Puno, por ejemplo, donde no facilitaron los procesos de inscripción de la LCPM y obstruyeron el ingreso a los exámenes, sería desastroso porque acá está el 30% del alumnado del país. Debería haber un concurso público para directores de UGEL.

¿Y por qué no lo efectúa?
Porque, según la ley, debe realizarlo la región.

El Sutep sostiene que la educación no mejora.
No es cierto. El organismo regional Preal (Programa de Promoción de la Reforma Educativa de América Latina y el Caribe) solicitó a Grade que hiciera una evaluación de la educación en el Perú. De nueve indicadores, hemos mejorado en siete.

Hay fuertes críticas por ‘municipalizar’ 666 colegios, cuando son comunas pobres y sin recursos.
El plan piloto indica que hay municipios que respondieron bien y otros no tanto. Pero en los distritos más pobres y alejados, donde la autoridad del ministerio o la regional no están cerca, el municipio permitió que mejore la cobertura educativa, con lo que se garantiza que los profesores asistan, que los materiales educativos se entreguen. Ese indicador ha funcionado, no las mejoras de infraestructura o de asignar más profesores aparte de lo que el ministerio le transfiere. Desde acá no podemos atender a escuelas en un distrito pequeño. Además, esos 666 colegios vienen de la mano con el programa Juntos, que condiciona la entrega del subsidio con la asistencia del niño al colegio.

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Natural selection is the process by which traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism of evolution.

The natural genetic variation within a population of organisms may cause some individuals to survive and reproduce more successfully than others in their current environment. For example, the peppered moth exists in both light and dark colors in the United Kingdom, but during the industrial revolution many of the trees on which the moths rested became blackened by soot, giving the dark-colored moths an advantage in hiding from predators. This gave dark-colored moths a better chance of surviving to produce dark-colored offspring, and in just a few generations the majority of the moths were dark. Factors which affect reproductive success are also important, an issue which Charles Darwin developed in his ideas on sexual selection.

Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, but the genetic (heritable) basis of any phenotype which gives a reproductive advantage will become more common in a population (see allele frequency). Over time, this process can result in adaptations that specialize populations for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species. In other words, natural selection is an important process (though not the only process) by which evolution takes place within a population of organisms. As opposed to artificial selection, in which humans favor specific traits, in natural selection the environment acts as a sieve through which only certain variations can pass.

Natural selection is one of the cornerstones of modern biology. The term was introduced by Darwin in his influential 1859 book On the Origin of Species,[1] in which natural selection was described as analogous to artificial selection, a process by which animals and plants with traits considered desirable by human breeders are systematically favored for reproduction. The concept of natural selection was originally developed in the absence of a valid theory of heredity; at the time of Darwin’s writing, nothing was known of modern genetics. The union of traditional Darwinian evolution with subse

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Maccabees

Tanakh
(Books common to all Christian and Judaic canons)
Genesis · Exodus · Leviticus · Numbers · Deuteronomy · Joshua · Judges · Ruth · 1–2 Samuel · 1–2 Kings · 1–2 Chronicles · Ezra (Esdras) · Nehemiah · Esther · Job · Psalms · Proverbs · Ecclesiastes · Song of Songs · Isaiah · Jeremiah · Lamentations · Ezekiel · Daniel · Minor prophets
Deuterocanon
Tobit · Judith · 1 Maccabees · 2 Maccabees · Wisdom (of Solomon) · Sirach · Baruch · Letter of Jeremiah · Additions to Daniel · Additions to Esther
Greek and Slavonic Orthodox canon
1 Esdras · 3 Maccabees · Prayer of Manasseh · Psalm 151
Georgian Orthodox canon
4 Maccabees · 2 Esdras
Ethiopian Orthodox “narrow” canon
Apocalypse of Ezra · Jubilees · Enoch · 1–3 Meqabyan · 4 Baruch
Syriac Peshitta
Psalms 152–155 · 2 Baruch · Letter of Baruch
Bible Portal

The first book of Maccabees is a book written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom, about the latter part of the second century BC. The original Hebrew is lost and the most important surviving version is the Greek translation contained in the Septuagint. The book is held as canonical scripture by some Christian churches (including Catholic, Orthodox and Copt churches), but not by most Protestant groups. Such Protestant groups consider it to be an apocryphal book (see also Deuterocanon). In modern-day Judaism, the book is often of great historical interest, but has no official religious status.

The setting of the book is about a century after the conquest of Judea by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, after Alexander’s empire has been divided so that Judea was part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. It tells how the Greek ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempted to suppress the practice of basic Jewish religious law, resulting in a Jewish revolt against Seleucid rule. The book covers the whole of the revolt, from 175 to 134 BC, highlighting how the salvation of the Jewish people in this crisis came from God through Mattathias‘ family, particularly his sons, Judas Maccabeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus, and Simon Maccabaeus, and Simon’s son, John Hyrcanus. The doctrine expressed in the book reflects traditional Jewish teaching, without later doctrines found, for example, in 2 Maccabees.

In the first chapter, Alexander the Great conquers the territory of Judea, only to be eventually succeeded by the Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes. After successfully invading the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt, Antiochus IV captures Jerusalem and removes the sacred objects from the Jerusalem temple, slaughtering many Jews. He then imposes a tax and establishes a fortress in Jerusalem.

Antiochus then tries to suppress public observance of Jewish laws, in an attempt to secure control over the Jews. He desecrates the Temple by setting up an “abomination of desolation” (an idol). Antiochus forbids both circumcision and possession of Jewish scriptures on pain of death. He forbids observance of the sabbath and the offering of sacrifices at the Temple. He also requires Jewish leaders to sacrifice to idols. While enforcement may be targeting only Jewish leaders, some Jews (and children) are killed as a warning to others. Antiochus introduces Hellenistic culture; this process of Hellenization included the construction of gymnasiums in Jerusalem. Among other effects, this discouraged the Jewish rite of circumcision even further, which had already been officially forbidden; a man’s state could not be concealed in the gymnasium, where men trained and socialized in the nude. But 1 Maccabees also insists that there were many Jews who sought out or welcomed the introduction of Greek culture. According to the text, some Jewish men even engaged in foreskin restoration in order to pass as fully Greek.

Mattathias calls upon people loyal to the traditions of Israel to oppose the invaders and the Jewish Hellenizers, and his three sons begin a military campaign against them. There is one complete loss of a thousand Jews (men, women and children) to Antiochus when the Jewish defenders refuse to fight on the Sabbath. The other Jews then reason that, when attacked, they must fight even on the holy day. In 165 BC the Temple is freed and reconsecrated, so that ritual sacrifices may begin again. The festival of Hanukkah is instituted by Judas Maccabeus and his brothers to celebrate this event (1 Macc. iv. 59). Judas seeks an alliance with the Roman Republic to remove the Greeks. He is “succeeded” by his brother Jonathan, who becomes high priest and also seeks alliance with Rome and confirms alliance with Areus of Sparta (1 Macc. xii. 1-23). Simon follows them, receiving the double office of high priest and prince of Israel. (Simon and his successors form the Hasmonean dynasty, which is not always considered a valid kingship by the Jews, since they were not of the lineage of David.) Simon leads the people in peace and prosperity, until he is murdered by agents of Ptolemy, son of Abubus, who had been named governor of the region by the Macedonian Greeks. He is succeeded by his son, John Hyrcanus.

The name Maccabee in Hebrew, means “hammer”. This is properly applied to the first leader of the revolt, Judas, third son of Mattathias, whose attacks were “hammer-like”. The name Maccabee also might have been derived from the battle cry of the revolt, Mi Kamocha B’elim, YHWH (“Who is like you among the heavenly powers, YHWH!” – Exodus ch. 15:11.) In Hebrew, the first letters of this four word slogan form the acronym MKBY (Mem, Kaf, Bet and Yod). This became synonymous with the revolt. The name came to be used for his brothers as well, which accounts for the title of the book. Scholars infer that in the original Hebrew, the term used for “abomination of desolation” would have sounded similar to “Lord of heaven”, so that this term might refer to an image or altar of Zeus.

The narrative is primarily prose text, but is interrupted by seven poetic sections, which imitate classical Hebrew poetry. These include four laments and three hymns of praise.

The text comes to us in three codices of the Septuagint: the Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Venetus, as well as some cursives.

Though the original book was written in Hebrew, as can be deduced by a number of Hebrew idioms in the text, the original has been lost and the version which comes down to us is the Septuagint. Some authors date the original Hebrew text even closer to the events covered, while a few suggest a later date. Because of the accuracy of the historical account, if the later date is taken, the author would have to have had access to first-hand reports of the events or other primary sources.

Origen of Alexandria[1] gives testimony to the existence of an original Hebrew text. Jerome likewise claims “the first book of Maccabees I have found to be Hebrew, the second is Greek, as can be proved from the very style” (per Prologus Galeatus). Many scholars suggest that they may have actually had access to a Biblical Aramaic paraphrase of the work — most Christian scholars of the time did not distinguish between Hebrew and Aramaic. In either case, only the Greek text has survived, and this only through its inclusion in the Christian canon. Origen claims that the title of the original was Sarbēth Sarbanael (variants include Σαρβηθ Σα[ρ]βαναι ελ “Sarbēth Sa[r]banai El” and Σαρβηθ Σα[ρ]βανέελ Sarbēth Sa[r]baneel), an enigmatic Greek transliteration from a Semitic original. Various reconstructions have been proposed:

  • Book of the Prince of the House of Israel” or “the Prince of the House of God (El)“, from the Hebrew שַׂר בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, Sar Beit-Yisra’el or בֵּית אֵל‎ שַׂר, Sar Beit-El, respectively,
  • History of the House of the Warriors[2],
  • Book of the House of the Princes of God[3],
  • the Book of the Dynasty of God’s resisters[4], perhaps from סֵפֶר בֵּית סָרְבָנֵי אֵל, Sefer Beit Sarevanei El (“Book of the House who strive for God”).

Gustaf Dalman, meanwhile, suggests that the title is a corruption of the Aramaic “The Book of the House of the Hasmoneans“.[5]

The book’s author is unknown, but is assumed to have been a devout Jew from the Holy Land who may have taken part in the events described in the book. He shows intimate and detailed geographical knowledge of the Holy Land, but is inaccurate in his information about foreign countries. The author interprets the events not as a miraculous intervention by God, but rather God’s using the instrument of the military genius of the Maccabees to achieve his ends. The words “God” and “Lord” never occur in the text, always being replaced by “Heaven” or “He”.

Ronni Scotts

In Being In The Moment, Business, Daily Meditations, Media Dailies, Music For Pleasure, Prime Time News, Readers Choice, The Flying Muse, The Master Class, The Vitriolic Potical Corner, This Day In History, To Deal or Not on September 26, 2010 at 6:56 pm


Ronnie Scott (originally Ronald Schatt) was born in Aldgate, east London, into a family of Russian Jewish descent on his father’s side, and Portuguese antecedents on his mother’s.[1] Scott began playing in small jazz clubs at the age of sixteen. he toured with Johnny Claes, the trumpeter, from 1944 to 1945, and with Ted Heath in 1946, as well as working with Ambrose, Cab Kaye, and Tito Burns. He was involved in the short-lived musicians’ co-operative Club Eleven band and club (1948–1950), with Johnny Dankworth and others, and was a member of the generation of British musicians who worked on the Cunard liner Queen Mary (intermittently 1946–c. 1950) in order to visit New York and hear the new music directly. Scott was among the earliest British musicians to be influenced in his playing style by Charlie Parker and other bebop musicians.

In 1952 Scott joined Jack Parnell‘s orchestra, then led his own nine-piece group and quintet featuring among others, Pete King, with whom he would later open his jazz club, Victor Feldman, Hank Shaw and Phil Seamen from 1953 to 1956. He co-led The Jazz Couriers with Tubby Hayes from 1957 to 1959, and was leader of a quartet including Stan Tracey (1960–1967).

During this period he also did occasional session work; his best-known work here is the solo on The Beatles‘ “Lady Madonna“. He was said to be upset at the amount of his saxophone that made the final cut on the original record. In subsequent recordings Paul McCartney restored greater sections into the song.

From 1967–69, Scott was a member of The Kenny Clarke-Francy Boland Big Band which toured Europe extensively and which also featured fellow tenor players Johnny Griffin and Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis, at the same time running his own octet including John Surman and Kenny Wheeler (1968–1969), and a trio with Mike Carr on keyboards and Bobby Gien on drums (1971–1975). He then went on to lead various groups, most of which included John Critchinson on keyboards and Martin Drew on drums.

Ronnie Scott’s playing was much admired on both sides of the Atlantic. Charles Mingus said of him in 1961: “Of the white boys, Ronnie Scott gets closer to the negro blues feeling, the way Zoot Sims does.”[2] Despite his central position in the British jazz scene, Scott recorded infrequently during the last few decades of his career. He suffered periods of depression and, while recovering slowly from surgery for tooth implants, died at age 69 from an accidental overdose of barbiturates prescribed by his dentist.[3]

He was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium.

The author Joel Lane is Scott’s nephew.

Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club

Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club at 47 Frith Street, Soho, London.

Main article: Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club

Scott is perhaps best remembered for co-founding, with former tenor sax player Pete King, the Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club, which opened on 30 October 1959 in a basement at 39 Gerrard Street in London’s Soho district, with the debut of a young alto sax player named Peter King (no relation), before later moving to a larger venue nearby at 47 Frith Street in 1965. The original venue continued in operation as the “Old Place” until the lease ran out in 1967, and was used for performances by the up and coming generation of domestic musicians.

Scott regularly acted as the club’s genial Master of Ceremonies, and was (in)famous for his repertoire of jokes, asides and one-liners. A typical introduction might go: “Our next guest is one of the finest musicians in the country. In the city, he’s crap”.

After Scott’s death, King continued to run the club for a further nine years, before selling the club to theatre impresario Sally Greene in June 2005.

Selected band line-ups

As well as participating in name orchestras, Scott led or co-led numerous bands featuring some of Britain’s most prominent jazz musicians of the day.

Alan Dean’s Beboppers

1949

Ronnie Scott (ts), Johnny Dankworth (as), Hank Shaw (tp), Tommy Pollard (p), Pete Chilver (g), Joe Muddel (b), Laurie Morgan (d), Alan Dean (vocal).

Ronnie Scott Orchestra

– 1954, 1955

Ronnie Scott (ts), Derek Humble (as), Pete King (ts), Hank Shaw (tp), Ken Wray (tb), Benny Green (bs), Victor Feldman (p), Lennie Bush (b), Phil Seamen (d).

Ronnie Scott Quintet

– 1955

Ronnie Scott (ts), Hank Shaw (tp), Victor Feldman (p), Sammy Stokes/Lennie Bush (b), Phil Seamen (d).

Ronnie Scott Big Band

– 1955

Ronnie Scott, Pete King, (ts), Joe Harriott, Doug Robinson (as), Benny Green (bs), Stan Palmer, Hank Shaw, Dave Usden, Jimmy Watson, (tp) Jack Botterill, Robin Kaye, Mac Minshull, Ken Wray (tb), Norman Stenfalt (p), Eric Peter (b), Phil Seamen (d).

The Jazz Couriers

Ronnie Scott (ts), Tubby Hayes (ts, vib), Terry Shannon (p), Phil Bates (b), Bill Eyden (d).

(On 7 April 1957, The Jazz Couriers co-led by Tubby Hayes and Ronnie Scott, debuted at the new Flamingo Club in Wardour Street, Soho. The group lasted until 30 August 1959).

Ronnie Scott Quartet

(1964)

Ronnie Scott (ts), Stan Tracey (p), Malcolm Cecil (b), Jackie Dougan (d).

Ronnie Scott Quintet

(1990)

Dick Pearce (tp), Ronnie Scott (ts), John Critchinson (p), Ron Mathewson (b), Martin Drew (d).

Selected discography

  • 1948: Boppin’ at Esquire (indigo)
  • 1958: The Couriers of Jazz! (Carlton/Fresh Sounds)
  • 1965: The Night Is Scott and You’re So Swingable (Redial)
  • 1965: When I Want Your Opinion, I’ll Give it to You (Jazz House)
  • 1969: Live at Ronnie Scott’s (Columbia)
  • 1977: Serious Gold (Pye)
  • 1990: Never Pat a Burning Dog (Jazz House)
  • 1997: If I Want Your Opinion (Jazz House)
  • 1997: The Night Has a Thousand Eyes (Jazz House)
  • 2000: Boppin’ at Esquire (Indigo)
  • 2002: Ronnie Scott Live at the Jazz Club (Time Music)

See also

References

  • Clarke, Donald (Ed.). The Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music, Viking, 1989.
  • Kernfeld, Barry Dean (Ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, Macmillan Press, 1988.
  • Kington, Miles; Gelly, Dave. The Giants of Jazz, Schirmer Books, 1986.
  • Larkin, Colin. The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 3rd edition, Macmillan, 1998.
  • Ruppli, Michel; Novitsky, Ed. The Mercury Labels. A discography, Vol. V., Record and Artist Indexes, Greenwood Press, 1993.
  1. ^ The Man Behind The Club (Retrieved March 10, 2010)
  2. ^ “Ronnie Scott”, Brian Priestley, in Carr et al.
  3. ^ Jazz and death: medical profiles of jazz greats By Frederick J. Spencer. University Press of Mississippi. Page 2010
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (January 2010)

[Reprinted from Wikipedia]

Vocalist – General, Vocalist – Bass, Vocalist – Baritone, Vocalist – Tenor, Vocalist – Soprano, Rhythm Guitar, Lead Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Bass Guitar, Drums, Other Percussion, Violin, Trumpet, Saxophone, Keyboard, Piano, Background Singer, Harmonica, Flute, Other, Banjo, Mandolin, Fiddle, Dobro.

[blip.tv http://blip.tv/play/AfObIgI%5D

John Francis Anthony Pastorius III (December 1, 1951 – September 21, 1987), better known as Jaco Pastorius, was an American jazz musician and composer widely acknowledged for his skills as an electric bass player.
His playing style was noteworthy for containing intricate solos in the higher register. His innovations also included the use of harmonics and the “singing” quality of his melodies on fretless bass. Pastorius suffered from mental illness including a Substance-related disorder, and was diagnosed with bipolar disorder in 1982. He died in 1987 at age 35 following a violent altercation at a Fort Lauderdale drinking establishment.
Pastorius was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1988, one of only four bassists to be so honored (and the only electric bass guitarist). He is regarded as one of the most influential bass players of all time.

Listen Now…

Van Gogh

In Daily Meditations, Readers Choice on September 18, 2010 at 6:39 pm

Vincent van Gogh, for whom color was the chief symbol of expression, was born in Groot-Zundert, Holland. The son of a pastor, brought up in a religious and cultured atmosphere, Vincent was highly emotional and lacked self-confidence. Between 1860 and 1880, when he finally decided to become an artist, van Gogh had had two unsuitable and

unhappy romances and had worked unsuccessfully as a clerk in a bookstore, an art salesman, and a preacher in the Borinage (a dreary mining district in Belgium), where he was dismissed for overzealousness. He remained in Belgium to study art, determined to give happiness by creating beauty. The works of his early Dutch period are somber-toned, sharply lit, genre paintings of which the most famous is “The Potato Eaters” (1885). In that year van Gogh went to Antwerp where he discovered the works of Rubens and purchased many Japanese prints.

Asked about his technique, Banksy said:

I use whatever it takes. Sometimes that just means drawing a moustache on a girl’s face on some billboard, sometimes that means sweating for days over an intricate drawing. Efficiency is the key.

Stencils are traditionally hand drawn or printed onto sheets of acetate or card, before being cut out by hand. Because of the secretive nature of Banksy’s work and identity, it is uncertain what techniques he uses to generate the images in his stencils, though it is assumed he uses computers for some images due to the photocopy nature of much of his work.

He mentions in his book, Wall and Piece, that as he was starting to do graffiti, he was always too slow and was either caught or could never finish the art in the one sitting. So he devised a series of intricate stencils to minimise time and overlapping of the colour.

Not Banksy

“The darkest thing about Africa has always been our ignorance of it”
— George H. T. Kimble, from the book ‘Inside Africa’

Inside African Art is a project run by three people, Todd in Kenya and Gathinja and Jonah in New York. We have one thing in mind: The promotion and exposure of original fine arts by African artists. Contemporary African paintings are less well known than African artifacts and traditional crafts, and there is little exposure and availability of this type of artwork either in galleries or on the internet.
Yes, there are plenty of mass-produced artworks, African crafts, and Afri-kitch available, but finding an original African painting at a reasonable price is next to impossible – and it shouldn’t be!

Inside African Art

A sex GCSE is soon to be included on the national curriculum.

In Prime Time News, Readers Choice on September 18, 2010 at 4:10 pm

Schools to teach ‘sex GCSE’

A new government-funded qualification in sex education, run by the Northern Council for Further Education (NCFE), is to be piloted in nine schools across the country for the first time this year, with plans to extend it throughout the UK.

Students will be able to gain a D-grade equivalent should they sign up to the course, which has been designed to raise awareness of concerns such as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), relationship problems and contraception.

A sex GCSE equivalent could soon be taught in all schools in the UK A sex GCSE equivalent could soon be taught in all schools in the UK

Suzanne Cant, spokeswoman for the NCFE, noted that such education should be featured on the curriculum for all young people.

‘The latest figures show teenage pregnancy rates are falling, but not falling at a fast enough rate to meet government targets,’ she remarked, going on to add that diagnoses each year for STDs are in the hundreds of thousands, a figure that is constantly increasing.

This module takes nine hours to teach and is being aimed at teenagers not yet ready to take their GCSEs, quizzing them on the names of sexual organs and asking them to detail two suitable methods of contraception for young people.

It follows reports that British girls as young as 13 are to be offered the contraceptive pill in an attempt to reduce underage pregnancy rates, with pharmacies Boots and Lloyds involved in the scheme.

A sex GCSE is soon to be included on the national curriculum. | Metro.co.uk.

MALCOLM X & JFK

In Readers Choice on September 6, 2010 at 11:31 pm

I want to thank Allah for coming and giving to us our leader and teacher here in America, The Honorable Elijah Muhammad. I want to thank Brother Benjamin at the outset for doing a wonderful job of opening up our eyes and giving us a good preliminary basic understanding of the means and the objectives of The Honorable Elijah Muhammad, and also I am thankful to Allah for bringing so many people out here tonight, especially just before Christmas.

You know, it’s next to a miracle when you get this many of our people together so close to Christmas interested in anything whatsoever that’s serious. And actually what this shows is the change that’s taking place among the so-called Negroes not only here in New York but throughout the entire world. Today dark mankind is waking up and is undertaking a new type of thinking, and it is this new type of thinking that is creating new approaches and new reactions that make it almost impossible to figure out what the black man is going to do next, and by black man we mean, as we are taught by The Honorable Elijah Muhammad, we include all those who are non-white.

He teaches us that black is the basic color, that black is the foundation or the basis of all colors. And all of our people who have not yet become white are still black, or atleast part of the Black Nation,and here at Muhammad’s Mosque when you hear us using the term “black” we mean everbody who’s here, regardless of your complexion. If you’re here at the Mosque you’re black, because the only ticket you need to get into Muhammad’s Mosque is to be black. So if you got in you know you’re black.

You may not have known that you were black before you came here. In fact, very few of our people really look upon themselves as being black. They think of themselves as practically everything else on the color spectrum except black. And no matter how dark one of our people may be, you rarely hear him call himself black. But now that The Honorable Elijah Muhammad has been teaching among the so-called Negroes, you find our people of all complexions going around bragging that “I’m a black man.”

This shows you that a new teaching is taking place and there is new thinking among the so-called Negroes. Yet just yesterday you would have to admit that it was very difficult to get our people to refer to themselves as black. Now all of a sudden our people of all complexions are not apologizing for being black but bragging about being black. So there’s a new thinking all over America among the so-called Negroes. And the one who is actually the author of this new thinking is The Honorable Elijah Muhammad. It is what he is teaching that is making our people, for the first time, proud to be black, and what’s most important of all, for the first time it makes our people want to know more about black, want to know why black is good, or what there is about black that is good.

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Mind Control in America

In Readers Choice on September 6, 2010 at 3:07 pm

III. History of MK-ULTRA.

CIA program on Mind Control.- Started during WWII with research on hypnosis for interrogation, secure courier duties, and reducing fatigue. Also research into effects of primitive drugs like barbiturates and cannabis as far as drug-assisted interrogation goes.- George Estabrooks was the leading proponent of hypnosis as the be-all and end-all of manipulating peoples minds. His book, ‘Hypnotism’, published in the early forties, has been decried as too fantastic and improbable in terms of describing the capabilities of hypnosis with certain very suggestible subjects, but his arguments and examples remain valid to this day.

Estabrooks admitted in 1971 to creating hypnotic couriers and programmed multiple personalities for Military Intelligence purposes in this 1971 Science Digest article. MUST READ!!- Start of Cold War and Korean War in particular gave a big boost to mind control research with the emergence of ‘Brain Washing’ as a common term. Supposedly a development of the dastardly Chi-Coms, the term was actually coined by a magazine writer later found to be on the CIA payroll as an agent of influence. Postulating a ‘brainwashing gap’ The CIA got the go-ahead for research into countering communist mind control efforts and developing their own to aid in the espionage wars.- Hypnosis, drugs, and psycho-surgery; separately and combined, were the tools of this quest for the ultimate truth serum on the one hand, and the capability to create an agent who could not have his or her mission tortured out of them, or even be aware that they were carrying secret information given to them in an altered state of consciousness.

More and more sophisticated drugs were experimented with, such as LSD, Ketamine, and Psilocybine. Lobotomy and the implantation of electrodes were considered as methods for creating a compliant agent. Electro-Convulsive Shock, combined with LSD, sedation for days at a time, and constantly replaying the patient’s own voice through helmet-mounted headphones was a notorious Canadian researcher’s recipe for mind control.- One of the most remarkable cases of mind control involves a famous model of the late 40’s and 50’s named Candy Jones. In the book, “The Control of Candy Jones” the author reviewed hours of tapes made by Candy Jones and her husband which revealed a systematic program to create and manipulate alter personalities as the foundation for programmed couriers resistant to torture, where the primary personality would not even be aware of the secret information being carried. The information could be summoned forth via a post-hypnotic command or response to a pre-programmed cue.- Research continued into early 70’s by CIA’s own admission during the Church hearings. John Marks, author of the best study of CIA mind control experiments, makes the subtle differentiation that the CIA congressional witnesses might truthfully say that all research done by the TSS Directorate had ended, since the programs were moved into other areas once operational techniques had been developed. Many of the names mentioned in reference to mind control research turn up in the few references to supposed dead-end research in ESP.- There have been persistent rumors of Navy research involving attempts at telepathy from submarines under water, the Nautilus being the most famous of these.

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Watts 1968 Riots

In Readers Choice on September 6, 2010 at 12:17 am

The term Watts Riots of 1965 refers to a large-scale riot which lasted 6 days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. By the time the riot subsided, 34 people had been killed, 1,032 injured, and 3,438 arrested. It would stand as the most severe riot in Los Angeles history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992. The riot is viewed by some as a reaction to the record of police brutality by the LAPD and other racial injustices suffered by black Americans in Los Angeles, including job and housing discrimination.The riots began on August 11, 1965, in Watts, a neighbourhood in Los Angeles, when Lee Minikus, a California Highway Patrol motorcycle officer, pulled over Marquette Frye, who Minikus believed was intoxicated because of his observed erratic driving. Frye failed to pass sobriety tests, including walking in a straight line and touching his nose, and was arrested soon after.

Minikus refused to let Frye’s brother, Ronald, drive the car home, and radioed for it to be impounded. As events escalated, a crowd of onlookers steadily grew from dozens to hundreds. The mob became violent, throwing rocks and other objects while shouting at the police officers. A struggle ensued shortly resulting in the arrest of Marquette and Ronald Frye, as well as their mother. Burning buildings during the riots.Though the riots began in August, there had previously been a build-up of racial tension in the area. The riots that began on August 11 resulted from an amalgamation of such events in Watts, and the arrest of three Frye family members broke the tension as violence spilled onto the streets of Watts for four days.Watts suffered from various forms and degrees of damage from the residents’ looting and vandalism that seriously threatened the security of the city. Some participants chose to intensify the level of violence by starting physical fights with police, blocking the firemen of the Los Angeles Fire Department from their safety duties, or even beating white motorists. Others joined the riot by breaking into stores, stealing whatever they could, and some setting the stores themselves on fire.LAPD Police Chief William Parker also fueled the radicalized tension that already threatened to combust, by publicly labeling the people he saw involved in the riots as “monkeys in the zoo”. Overall, an estimated $40 million in damage was caused as almost 1,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed. Most of the physical damage was confined to white-owned businesses that were said to have caused resentment in the neighborhood due to perceived unfairness.

Homes were not attacked, although some caught fire due to proximity to other fires.Day-by-day breakdownWednesday, August 11A white California highway patrolman, Lee Minikus, arrested Marquette Frye at around 7 p.m. after Frye failed his sobriety tests.By 7:23 all three Fryes—Marquette, his brother Ronald, and their mother—had been arrested as a crowd of a couple hundred gathered around the scene.The police withdrew by 7:40, leaving behind an angered, tense crowd.

For the last 4 hours of the night, the mob stoned cars and threatened police in the area.Thursday, August 12Black leaders such as preachers, teachers, and businessmen tried to restore order in the community after a night of rampage, telling people to stay indoors.Around 10 a.m. community workers and officers called residents in the area, telling them to remain in their houses.At 2 p.m. a community meeting was held, at which members representing different neighborhood groups discussed solutions to the problem at hand; the meeting failed.At 5 p.m. Police Chief William Parker, after learning the meeting had failed, notified the California National Guard in Sacramento to be on alert. Police arrest a man during the riots.

Friday, August 13At 8 a.m. rioting grew.Saturday, August 14By 1 a.m. there were around 100 fire brigades in the areas, trying to put out fires started by rioters.Over 3,000 national guardsmen had joined the police by this time in trying to maintain order on the streets.By midnight there were around 13,900 guardsmen in the area.A curfew was set at 8 p.m. to keep people inside their houses – allowing the government officials to gain more control of the situation.Sunday, August 15The riots died down, leaving around $40 million in property damage.Churches, community groups, and government agencies gave out aid.The vandalism ceased and the curfew was lifted by Tuesday, August 17By the following Sunday, a week later, less than 300 national guardsmen remained to help out with the aftermath.Businesses & Private Buildings Public Buildings TotalDamaged/burned: 258 Damaged/burned: 14 Total:272Looted: 192 Total:192Both damaged/burned & looted: 288 Total:288Destroyed: 267 Destroyed: 1 Total:268 Total: 977 Government interventionEventually, the California National Guard was called to active duty to assist in controlling the rioting. On Friday night, a battalion of the 160th Infantry and the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron of the 18th Armored Cavalry were sent into the riot area (about 2,000 men).

Two days later, the remainder of the 40th Armored Division was sent into the riot zone. A day after that, units from northern California arrived (a total of around 15,000 troops). These National Guardsmen put a cordon around a vast region of South Central Los Angeles, and the rioting was largely over by Sunday. Due to the seriousness of the riots, martial law had been declared. Sergeant Ben Dunn said “The streets of Watts resembled an all-out war zone in some far-off foreign country, it bore no resemblance to the United States of America”. The initial commander of National Guard troops was Colonel Bud Taylor, then a motorcycle patrolman with the Los Angeles Police Department, who in effect became superior to Chief of Police Parker. National Guard units from Northern California were also called in, including Major General Clarence H. Pease, former commanding general of the National Guard’s 40th Infantry Division.

Watts: then and nowAs this area was known to be under much racial and social tension, debates have surfaced over what really happened in Watts. Reactions and reasoning about the Watts incident greatly vary because those affected by and participating in the chaos that followed the original arrest were from a diverse crowd. The government tried to help by releasing The McCone Report, claiming that it was a detailed study of the riot, but it turned out to be a short summary with just 15 pages of the report devoted to actually describing the whole event. More opinions and explanations then appeared as other sources attempted to explain the causes as well. Public opinion polls have shown that around the same percentage of people believed that the riots were linked to Communist groups as those that blame social problems like unemployment and prejudice as the cause. Those opinions concerning racism and discrimination emerged only three years after hearings conducted by a committee of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights took place in Los Angeles to assess the condition of relations between the police force and minorities. The purpose of these hearings was also to make a ruling on the discrimination case against the police for their mistreatment of Black Muslims. These different arguments and opinions still continue to promote these debates over the underlying cause of Watts Riots. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke two days after the riots happened in Watts.A California gubernatorial commission investigated the riots, identifying the causes as high unemployment, poor schools, and other inferior living conditions. Subsequently, the government made little effort to address the problems or repair damages. The riots were also a response to Proposition 14, a constitutional amendment sponsored by the California Real Estate Association that had in effect repealed the Rumford Fair Housing Act. Today, Watts still faces problems of poverty, crime, and poor education.

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The Psychology of The Business Mind-Set

In Readers Choice on September 1, 2010 at 7:58 pm
Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, smok...

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Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development

According to Sigmund Freud, what we do and why we do it, who we are and how we became this way are all related to our sexual drive. Differences in personalities originate in differences in childhood sexual experiences. In the Freudian psychoanalytical model, child personality development is discussed in terms of “psychosexual stages”. In his “Three Essays on Sexuality” (1915), Freud outlined five stages of manifestations of the sexual drive: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital. At each stage, different areas of the child’s body become the focus of his pleasure and the dominant source of sexual arousal. Differences in satisfying the sexual urges at each stage will inevitably lead to differences in adult personalities. Conflicts between the sex drive and rules of society are present at every stage. A proper resolution of the conflicts will lead the child to progress past one stage and move on to the next. Failure to achieve a proper resolution, however, will make the child fixated in the present stage. The latter is believed to be the cause of many personality and behavioral disorders.

1. Oral Stage (Age 0 – 1.5)

Erogenous Zone in Focus: Mouth

Gratifying Activities: Nursing – eating, as well as mouth movement, including sucking, gumming, biting and swallowing.

Interaction with the Environment: To the infant, the mother’s breast not only is the source of food and drink, but also represents her love. Because the child’s personality is controlled by the id and therefore demands immediate gratification, responsive nurturing is key. Both insufficient and forceful feeding can result in fixation in this stage.

Symptoms of Oral Fixation:

  • Smoking
  • Constant chewing on gum, pens, pencils, etc.
  • Nail biting
  • Overeating
  • Drinking
  • Sarcasm (“the biting personality”) and verbal hostility


2. Anal Stage (Age 1.5 – 3)

Erogenous Zone in Focus: Anus

Gratifying Activities: Bowel movement and the withholding of such movement

Interaction with the Environment: The major event at this stage is toilet training, a process through which children are taught when, where, and how excretion is deemed appropriate by society. Children at this stage start to notice the pleasure and displeasure associated with bowel movements. Through toilet training, they also discover their own ability to control such movements. Along with it comes the realization that this ability gives them power over their parents. That is, by exercising control over the retention and expulsion of feces, a child can choose to either grand or resist parents’ wishes.

Anal Fixation

  • Anal-Expulsive Personality: If the parents are too lenient and fail to instill the society’s rules about bowel movement control, the child will derive pleasure and success from the expulsion. Individuals with a fixation on this mode of gratification are excessively sloppy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant.
  • Anal-Retentive Personality: If a child receives excessive pressure and punishment from parents during toilet training, he will experience anxiety over bowl movements and take pleasure in being able to withhold such functions. Individuals who fail to progress pass this stage are obsessively clean and
  • orderly, and intolerant of those who aren’t. They may also be very careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, conforming and passive-aggressive.